Protective effect of 6-shogaol against endotoxin-induced periodontitis in rats
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Periodontal diseases are the most prevalent bacterial ailments, affecting 10–15% of the global population, and eventually leading to tooth loss if left untreated. Shogaols obtained from ginger (Zingiber officinale) exhibit significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, the antibacterial potential of shogaols against periodontitis remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 6-shogaol (6-SH) on various factors responsible for periodontitis such as inflammation. Escherichia coli endotoxin was used to induce experimental periodontitis, and the effects of 6-SH on hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, myeloperoxidase activity, and lipid peroxides were estimated together with cathepsin B, cathepsin D, β-glucuronidase, acid phosphatase, and C-reactive protein activity in serum. In addition, the levels of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase were estimated in serum after 6-SH treatment. Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxide levels were significantly reduced in the 6-SH-treated group. Moreover, lysosomal enzyme (cathepsin B, cathepsin D, β-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase) and acute-phase protein (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) levels significantly declined after administration of 6-SH. Meanwhile, non-enzymatic antioxidant systems (e.g., ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, ceruloplasmin, and reduced glutathione) and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase) were significantly increased in the 6-SH-treated group. These results suggest a protective effect of 6-SH against experimental periodontitis via the regulation of key disease markers.
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