ANTITUMOR EFFECTS OF VANILLIN BASED CHALCONE ANALOGUES IN VITRO
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Chalcones, as a large group of organic compounds, are widely implemented in various types of anti-cancer therapeutics. These plant metabolites are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, and have anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antibacterial and anti-oxidative activities, as well as many other pharmacological and biological effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytotoxic effects, type of cell death and mechanism of action of the newly synthesized vanillin based chalcone analogues, (CH1) and (CH2) on human colon cancer HCT-116 and noncancerous (control) MRC-5 cell lines. In order to compare effects of vanillin based chalcone analogues on investigated cell lines, as reference substances cisplatin (cisPt) and dehydrozingerone (DHZ) were used. Investigation of antitumor effect of chalcone analogues on HCT-116 cells was carried out by three methods MTT assay, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. The result of our investigation indicated that newly synthesized vanillin based chalcone analogues expressed powerful antitumor effect on cancer cells (HCT-116 cell line), while their effect on healthy cells (MRC-5 cell line) was not statistically significant. Vanillin based chalcone analogues caused overexpression and activation of mitochondrial Bax protein and caspase-3 in HCT-116 cells, indicating that their mechanism of antitumor action was mediated through activation of inner apoptotic pathway. These results indicate possible usefulness of CH1 and CH2 in antitumor therapy whether through its direct cytotoxic effect or as adjuvant therapy. Our results indicate possible usefulness of CH1 and CH2 vanillin based chalcone analogues in antitumor therapy.
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