COMPOSITION AND BIOMEDICAL RELEVANCE OF SEA BUCKTHORN
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a plant belonging to the Elaeagnaceae family. It is widely distributed throughout Asia, and Europe, especially in colder regions. Generally, sea buckthorn species vary in their phytochemical composition, depending on the climate, and soils in which they grow. Sea buckthorn has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, due to its rich chemical composition. The leaves, fruits, and seeds of this plant are a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as vitamins (A, E, K, C, B1, B2), phenolic compounds (e.g gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol), fatty acids (e.g linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid, vaccenic acid), amino acids (e.g glycine, isoleucine, cysteine, tyrosine, histidine, arginine), micro-, and macroelements. The presence of a large number of bioactive compounds results in a broad spectrum of biological activity. It has been shown that sea buckthorn has antioxidant, and anti–inflammatory properties, moreover it protects, and regulates cellular metabolism, has cardioprotective properties, and protective effect on skin cells. Research from recent years offers the hope that sea buckthorn preparations will be used in the treatment of, for example, skin burns, atopic dermatitis or abnormal cholesterol levels, but also as a support for the treatment of, for example, cardiovascular diseases.
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