GC-MS Analysis and Biological activity of Essential Oil of Fruits, Needles and Bark of Pinus pinea grown wildly in Jordan
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Essential oils from needles, fruits and bark was extracted from Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) grown wildly in Jordan. The chemical composition, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity of essential oils was evaluated. The chemical compositions were identified using Gas-Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and retention Indices (Van den Dool & Kratz). The results show that the essential oil obtained from needles composed mainly of Guaiol (12.7%), limonene (11.42%), and β-caryophyllene (7.61%), while fruit contains limonene (32.56%), and α-pinene (6.78%). The essential oils from barks were rich in β-caryophyllene (16.51%), limonene (14.83%), caryophyllene oxide (11.83%), and longifolene (7.51%). In vitro, antibacterial activity of the essential oil samples was evaluated using agar-well diffusion method against three different strains of bacteria (Gram¬-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli). The results showed that essential oil showed appreciable antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The essential oil from fruit exhibited weak antibacterial activity against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Essential oils of P. pinea showed appreciable antioxidant activity in-vitro.
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