Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2020 | 2 | 2 | 27-37
Article title

Awareness of the role of cardiovascular risk factors and their prevention – comparison between rural-urban and urban adolescents

Title variants
Languages of publication
Background Unhealthy habits (poor diet, smoking and hazardous alcohol drinking) often originate from early-life. We assessed the knowledge on selected cardiovascular and cancer risk factors, healthy habits and its implementation among adolescents and the correlation with their residence. Material and methods A survey-based study (38-item inventory) was conducted among adolescents from urban and rural-urban areas recruited in two Tricity high-schools and one junior high school from Gniewkowo, respectively. Results A total of 410 students (59% girls) form Tricity and 287 (51% girls) from Gniewkowo completed the inventory. The mean age was 15.3 years. Students from Gniewkowo spend weekly 8.9±6.2 hours on structured physical activity, which contrasts with 5.5±4.5hrs in Tricity(P<0.001). Gniewkowo residents restrained from alcohol consumption in 38.7% vs. 31.1% in Tricity (P=0.04); were active smokers at 9.4% vs. 4.2% (P=0.007); regular fruits and vegetables consumption was low in both Gniewkowo and Tricity 11.8% vs. 8.6% (P=0.19); respectively. The awareness of the risk factors of non-communicable diseases was more common amongst Tricity adolescents. This was consistently coupled with the knowledge on preventive methods. Conclusions The level of knowledge on common non-communicable disease risk factors is higher among teenagers from urban areas, however this does not necessarily translate to more frequent introduction of healthy lifestyle.
Physical description
  • Lurbe E, Cifkova R, Cruickshank JK, Dillon MJ, Ferreira I, Invitti C, et al. Management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens [Internet]. 2009 Sep;27(9):1719–42. Available from:
  • Litwin M, Michałkiewicz J, Gackowska L. Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents is an Immuno-Metabolic Disease with Hemodynamic Consequences. Curr Hypertens Rep [Internet]. 2013 Aug 5;15(4):331–9. Available from:
  • Tenfold increase in childhood and adolescent obesity in four decades: new study by Imperial College London and WHO [Internet]. WHO. 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 30]. Available from:
  • Wolnicka K, Taraszewska A, Jaczewska-Schuetz J. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 3rd grade students of primary schools taking into account regional differences. Endocrin Obes Met Disor [Internet]. 2012;8:80–8. Available from:
  • Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, Layden J, Carnes BA, Brody J, et al. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1138–45. Available from:
  • Preston SH, Vierboom YC, Stokes A. The role of obesity in exceptionally slow US mortality improvement. Proc Natl Acad Sci [Internet]. 2018 Jan 30;115(5):957–61. Available from:
  • Wills TA, Sargent JD, Knight R, Pagano I, Gibbons FX. E-cigarette use and willingness to smoke: a sample of adolescent non-smokers. Tob Control [Internet]. 2016 Apr;25(e1):e52–9. Available from:
  • 8 Conner M, Grogan S, Simms-Ellis R, Flett K, Sykes-Muskett B, Cowap L, et al. Do electronic cigarettes increase cigarette smoking in UK adolescents? Evidence from a 12-month prospective study. Tob Control [Internet]. 2018;27(4):365–72. Available from:
  • Ostrówka D, Jancewicz M, Komand A, Nowak M, Łubiarz M, Furtak M, et al. Awareness of the role of cardiovascular risk factors and their prevention from the perspective of Tricity adolescents. Arter Hypertens [Internet]. 2017 Mar 30;21(1):51–9. Available from:
  • Siatki centylowe dzieci i młodzieży w wieku 3-18 lat [Internet]. Instytut ‘Pomnik Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka’. 2019 [cited 2019 Dec 30]. Available from:
  • Physical activity and young people [Internet]. WHO. [cited 2019 Dec 30]. Available from:
  • Farpour-Lambert NJ, Martin XE, Bucher Della Torre S, von Haller L, Ells LJ, Herrmann FR, et al. Effectiveness of individual and group programmes to treat obesity and reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in pre-pubertal children. Clin Obes [Internet]. 2019 Dec 1;9(6):e12335. Available from:
  • Cuenca-García M, Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, González-Gross M, Labayen I, Jago R, et al. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. Scand J Med Sci Sports [Internet]. 2014 Jun 1;24(3):553–62. Available from:
  • Guthold R, Cowan MJ, Autenrieth CS, Kann L, Riley LM. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among schoolchildren: a 34-country comparison. J Pediatr [Internet]. 2010;157(1):43-49.e1. Available from:
  • Belton S, O’ Brien W, Meegan S, Woods C, Issartel J. Youth-Physical Activity Towards Health: evidence and background to the development of the Y-PATH physical activity intervention for adolescents. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2014 Dec 5;14(1):122. Available from:
  • Mazur J, Oblacińska A, Jodkowska M, Małkowska-Szkutnik A, Tabak I, Zawadzka D, et al. Aktywność fizyczna młodzieży szkolnej w wieku 9-17 lat, aktualne wskaźniki, tendencje ich zmian oraz wybrane zewnętrzne i wewnętrzne uwarunkowania. Instytut Matki i Dziecka, projekt realizowany na zlecenie Ministerstwa Sportu i Turystyki, Warszawa. 2013.
  • Oblacińska A. Zdrowie i zachowania zdrowotne młodzieży szkolnej w Polsce na tle wybranych uwarunkowań socjodemograficznych. Wyniki badań HBSC. Warszawa: Instytut Matki i Dziecka. 2015.
  • Sociologist: For many teenagers shopping malls are the modern day yards [Internet]. Science in Poland. 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 30]. Available from:
  • Polskie dzieci (wciąż) jeżdżą do szkoły samochodami [Internet]. Transport Publiczny. [cited 2019 Dec 30]. Available from:
  • Siasos G, Tsigkou V, Kokkou E, Oikonomou E, Vavuranakis M, Vlachopoulos C, et al. Smoking and atherosclerosis: mechanisms of disease and new therapeutic approaches. Curr Med Chem [Internet]. 2014;21(34):3936–48. Available from:
  • Shah RS, Cole JW. Smoking and stroke: the more you smoke the more you stroke. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther [Internet]. 2010 Jul 10;8(7):917–32. Available from:
  • Oliveira A, Barros H, Júlia Maciel M, Lopes C. Tobacco smoking and acute myocardial infarction in young adults: A population-based case-control study. Prev Med (Baltim) [Internet]. 2007 Apr;44(4):311–6. Available from:
  • Mazur J, Dzielska A, Kowalewska A, Fijałkowska A. Current trends in tobacco smoking among 15-year-old adolescents in Poland in the background of 30 countries. Przegl Lek [Internet]. 2016;73(10):685–9. Available from:
  • Polakowska M, Kaleta D, Piotrowski W, Topór-Mądry R, Puch-Walczak A, Niklas A, et al. Tobacco smoking in Poland in the years from 2003 to 2014. Multicentre Natl Popul Heal Exam Surv (WOBASZ) Pol Arch Intern Med [Internet]. 2017;127(2):91–9. Available from:
  • Gentzke AS, Creamer ML, Cullen KA, Ambrose BK, Willis G, Jamal A, et al. Vital signs: tobacco product use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2019;68(6):157–64. Available from:
  • Banzer R, Haring C, Buchheim A, Oehler S, Carli V, Wasserman C, et al. Factors associated with different smoking status in European adolescents: results of the SEYLE study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. 2017 Nov 6;26(11):1319–29. Available from:
  • Kaya CA, Unalan PC. Factors associated with adolescents’ smoking experience and staying tobacco free. Ment Health Fam Med [Internet]. 2010 Sep;7(3):145–53. Available from:
  • Health NCfCDPaHPUOoSa. Social, Environmental, Cognitive, and Genetic Influences on the Use of Tobacco Among Youth. 2012;.
  • Zhan W, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Selya A, Mermelstein RJ. The natural course of nicotine dependence symptoms among adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res [Internet]. 2012 Dec 1;14(12):1445–52. Available from:
  • Kaleta D, Polanska K, Wojtysiak P, Szatko F. Involuntary smoking in adolescents, their awareness of its harmfulness, and attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2017 Sep 21;14(10):1095. Available from:
  • Gilman SE, Rende R, Boergers J, Abrams DB, Buka SL, Clark MA, et al. Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2009 Feb 1;123(2):e274–81. Available from:
  • Lambert D, Gale JA, Hartley D. Substance abuse by youth and young adults in rural America. J Rural Heal [Internet]. 2008 Jun;24(3):221–8. Available from:
  • Atav S, Spencer GA. Health risk behaviors among adolescents attending rural, suburban, and urban schools: A comparative study. Fam Community Health [Internet]. 2002;25(2):53–64. Available from:
  • Yu D, Zhang X, Gao Y-T, Li H, Yang G, Huang J, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of CHD: results from prospective cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai. Br J Nutr [Internet]. 2014;111(2):353–62. Available from:
  • Li M, Fan Y, Zhang X, Hou W, Tang Z. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2014;4(11):e005497. Available from:
  • Dauchet L, Amouyel P, Dallongeville J. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Neurology [Internet]. 2005;65(8):1193–7. Available from:
  • Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, et al. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr [Internet]. 2012;51(6):637–63. Available from:
  • Povlsen L, Aryal UR, Petzold M, Krettek A. Adolescents’ knowledge and opinions about smoking: a qualitative study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Bhaktapur District, Nepal. Int J Adolesc Med Health [Internet]. 2018;30(1):20150124. Available from:
  • Lynch EB, Liu K, Kiefe CI, Greenland P. Cardiovascular disease risk factor knowledge in young adults and 10-year change in risk factors: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Am J Epidemiol [Internet]. 2006;164(12):1171–9. Available from:
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.