Aim Smoking among young people is becoming an increasingly serious problem. The solution to the problems related to smoking can be brought about by the constant reconstruction of behavior patterns, a systematic change of customs and cultural patterns, included in the educational anti-smoking programs of Health Promoting Schools. The aim was to evaluate the structure of cigarette smoking, the demographic and environmental factors that determine smoking among young people. Material and methods The study was conducted in five Health Promoting Schools in Tarnow (Junior High School, High School). 663 students from five schools participated in the study, age 13-18. The study has been conducted two Times among the same sample: when the participants started school and in the end of education. The students completed an author`s questionnaire based on the HBSC report. Results Cigarette smoking was declared by 32.0% of the students in the first study (boys – S=1,15; SD=0,36; girls – S=1,12, SD=0,32). In the second study, cigarette smoking was declared by 37.3% (boys – S=1,3, SD=0,36; girls – S=1,18; SD=0,39). Boys have ever smoked significantly more often than girls (1st study – p=0.0131, 2nd study – p=0.0028). There were statistically significantly more people living in rural areas and smoking cigarettes (28.5%) compared to people living in urban areas (19.9%) (p=0.006). During school education, both boys and girls increased the number of cigarettes smoked and the frequency of smoking. Conclusions The health promoting schools surveyed failed to delay and prevent tobacco initiation among adolescents. Effective prophylaxis cannot be implemented also without the support of parents.