Historia otologii. CzęśćII (od schyłku XIX do końcaXX wieku)
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The ending of the XIX century was characterized by a rapid progress of otology in thetreatment of the ears diseases. New methods of surgical treatment in otology were deve-loped by understanding the pathophysiology. The greatest achievements in this areabelong to doctors from Viennese and German institutions. At this time the surgical treatment of chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, otosclerosis and tympanoplasty wasstarted. Understanding of aseptic technique, the possibility to perform patient's anesthe-sia, new lighting techniques, microsurgical instruments and operating microscope haveexpanded surgical capabilities of otologists. The discovery of antibiotics and sulfonami-des improved possibilities for the treatment of ear infections and their complications.High-resolution methods of computer tomography, vestibulogical and audiological diag-nostics using objective methods (ABR, AOE) allowed to perform accurate diagnosis of themiddle and inner ear diseases. New techniques of transplantation and ossicles prosthe-sis, drainage ventilation, digital hearing aids, cochlear, bone and brainstem anchoredimplants enable improvement of hearing organ's function. Today tinnitus, vertigo andhearing loss are serious problems for humanity, especially in elderly despite of enormous knowledge in thefield of otology.
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