Acute mastoiditis in children population
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Aim: Aim of the study was retrospective analysis of the patients documentation treated for acute mastoiditis (AM) in Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology in Bialystok and available literature on this subject to determine the optimal rules of treatment in AM. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of 40 patients treated for AM in 2001-2017. We have adopted Anthonsen et al.  AM diagnosis criteria to include patients to this study. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 46 months, 37% of children were less than 2 years old. 2/3 of the cases were not preceded by previous acute otitis media(AOM) episodes. 69% of patients received antibiotics before admission to the hospital. In laboratory studies, 95% of patients had elevated indices of inflammation (CRP, leukocytosis), and their value was higher among patients qualified for surgery. The indications for computed tomography (CT) were the lack of improvement after conservative treatment for 48 hours or symptoms of the presence of subperiosteal abscess. CT was performed in 35% of patients. 24 patients (60%) were treated only conservatively: myringotomy without / with the insertion of a ventilation tubes and intravenous antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used antibiotic was ceftriaxone - 75% of patients. 16 patients required mastoidectomy. The most common indication (30%) for mastoidectomy was the presence of subperiosteal abscess. Conclusion: In uncomplicated AM cases CT does not have to be routinely performed, a myringotomy should be performed with or without drains insertion and an empiric intravenous antibiotic therapy should be started. In presence of a subperiosteal abscess, it is recommended to perform CT with contrast and mastoidectomy. Deterioration of the patient's condition or lack of improvement after 48 hours of conservative treatment obliges us to make a CT and on the basis of the decision on mastoidectomy.
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