REBOA – new era of bleeding control, literature review
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It is extremely difficult to provide non-compressible torso hemorrhage control particularly in trauma setting. A vast majority of cases present inability of successful exsanguination arrest, leading to cardiovascular collapse, myocardial and cerebral hypoperfusion and death eventually. The only possible treatment for these patients is prompt bleeding control, either open or endovascular. Aortic occlusion seems to be the most rapid and convenient way to restrain blood loss and possibly increase survival. However, it is not proven yet. Traditional aortic occlusion for trauma consisted of supradiaphragmatic thoracic aorta cross-clamping through resuscitative thoracotomy (RT). This complicated and devastating procedure triggered the necessity to work on a simpler, less invasive resuscitation bridge which can be implemented in emergency departments or even in prehospital setting. Resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) provides a novel method of hemorrhagic shock stabilization in bleeding below the diaphragm. The mechanism lies in improving myocardial and cerebral perfusion and ceasing major bleeding itself. This method together with invasive endovascular and surgical procedures creates a new approach of choice for trauma patients. It is called Endovascular Hybrid Trauma and Resuscitation Management (EVTM) and introduces this concept to modern clinical practice. Through a detailed review, this article aims to introduce REBOA procedure to a broader recipient and present REBOA details, benefits and limitations.
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