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2021 | 75(2) | 34-41
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Radiological changes in maxillary sinus morphology after lateral sinus floor augmentation

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Background: Restoration of the masticatory function in patients with edentulous posterior maxilla is often challenging due to the severe atrophy of the alveolar ridges and proximity of the maxillary sinus, resulting in insufficient bone quantity for implant-supported dentures.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in Schneiderian membrane thickness after lateral sinus floor augmentation (LSFA) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Material and methods: WLSFA procedures using different bone grafting materials were performed in 87 patients, operated on in two clinical institutions from 2016 to 2018. CBCT examination was performed in all patients before the LSFA procedure, at 1 month after surgery, and after 6 months, before implant placement or loading.
Results: Minor r adiological changes in mucous membrane morphology were observed preoperatively in 17.1% of patients. Postoperative CBCT in the early postsurgical period demonstrated that the number of intact non-specific sinuses decreased significantly, i.e. from 86.7% to 26.7%. The number of cases with local hypertrophia of the mucous membrane increased from 20.3% to 26.7%. Mucosal thickening was observed in 41.7% vs 7.5%. The number of intact sinuses increased to 57.8%. The number of cases with local membrane hypertrophia also increased – to 37.4%. The number of cases with mucosal thickening or fluid accumulation decreased significantly to 11.8 and 5.3% respectively. In 2 cases the development of chronic sinusitis required secondary surgeries.
Conclusion: The present retrospective study revealed that minor radiological changes in the morphology of the maxillary sinus mucosa were observed preoperatively in 17.1% of patients who underwent LSFA procedures. In the early and late postoperative period their frequency increased to 68.5% and 47.1%, respectively. However, the clinical signs of sinusitis developed only in 19.26% of patients. No significant correlations were found between the frequency and severity of postoperative radiological changes and residual bone height, sinus anatomy, initial state of the mucous membrane and type of the grafting material.
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