Severe vascular complications of acute pancreatiti
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Acute pancreatitis (AP) develops as a result of the imbalance of the mechanisms inhibiting the activity of enzymes in the pancreatic cells, which causes their autoactivation in the pancreas. The incidence of AP ranges from 10 up to 100 cases per 100,000 population per year in different parts of the world. The overall mortality rate for acute pancreatitis is 10- 15%. The mortality rate in patients diagnosed with the severe form of acute pancreatitis is up to 30- 40%. Material and methods. The study included 10 patients treated due to acute pancreatitis in two surgical departments run by one of the authors (S.G.) in the years 2004-2014, who developed a serious complication in the form of haemorrhage into the inflammatory tumour/pancreatic cyst or an adjacent organ. Haemorrhage was diagnosed based on the clinical picture, most often a sudden drop in blood pressure, peritonitis symptoms and imaging findings – abdominal ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography. Therapeutic methods included conservative treatment, endovascular embolisation and, in the absence of efficacy of the above mentioned methods, surgical treatment. Patients age and gender, the etiological factor, comorbidities, Atlanta Classification, treatment outcomes and mortality rate were assessed. Results. Alcohol was the most common etiological factor in the investigated AP cases. The patients received conservative treatment, interventional radiology treatment (endovascular embolisation) or surgical treatment. In the study group, 6 patients required surgical treatment, 3 patients received invasive radiology treatment, and conservative treatment was used in one patient. The mortality rate in the study group was 30%. Conclusions. Haemorrhages into the inflammatory cisterns or adjacent organs (stomach, transverse colon mesentery) secondary to AP are the most severe complications, which are difficult to manage. The successful use of interventional radiology methods to inhibit and prevent the recurrence of bleeding in some of the patients is a significant milestone.
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