Characteristics of swallowing disorders in patients with dysphonia
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Introduction: Coexistence of dysphagia with voice disorders is a topic rarely raised in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the aspect of dysfunction of laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse cases of patients with dysphonia in relation to coexistence of swallowing disorder. Material and method: The material of the study included 515 patients hospitalised due to dysphonia in 2018. Patients whose interview indicated swallowing difficulties were subjected to additional diagnosis for dysphagia (FEES, extended speech therapy test, SEMG). R esults: 11.8% of people requiring treatment for voice disorders reported coexistence of swallowing difficulties. Dysphagia was diagnosed in 9.3%. The percentage of respondents diagnosed with swallowing disorder differed depending on the type of underlying disease and was the highest in the group with neurological disorders. Analysis of the correlation between the severity of dysphagia (according to the assessed grade, DHI, EAT-10 results) and the severity of VHI showed a weak correlation between VHI and EAT-10 (p = 0.1), statistically significant correlations (p < 0,05) between the value of VHI and RSI in people with diagnosed neurological disease, between the value of VHI and DHI in people with hyperfunctional dysphonia and the value of VHI and BMI and EAT- 10 in people with chronic laryngitis. Moreover, statistically significant correlations were found between the severity of dysphagia and EAT-10 and DHI (p < 0.05). The speech therapy test indicated the co-existing problem of non-normative swallowing pattern. The electromyographic study showed the largest asymmetries in recording the average and maximum amplitude from masseters. C onclusions: Treatment of patients with voice disorders requires interdisciplinary care. A history of dysphagia in these patients should complement the medical history of voice disorders. The characteristics of swallowing disorders vary depending on the cause of the voice disorder and their co-occurrence affects on average 9.3% of patients. Coexistence of muscle tension dysphagia with voice disorder requires separate diagnostic protocol. Logopaedic procedure ought to be a key element in the interdisciplinary care of patients suffering from muscle tension dysphagia.
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