Risk factors and inflammatory predictors for Anastomotic Leakage following Total Mesorectal Excision with defunctioning stoma
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Background: This study aims to examine the factors involved in anastomotic leak (AL) following low anterior resection and total mesorectal excision (LAR-TME) and to determine the usefulness of early measurement of the inflammatory biomarkers C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Procalcitonin (PCT). Methods: One hundred patients undergoing LAR-TME with proximal diverting stoma were analysed between 2013 and 2016. Postoperative CRP and PCT levels were measured on the 3rd and 6th postoperative days. Results: There were 11 clinical leaks with a negative impact in univariate analysis on AL of male gender, larger and stenotic tumours, intraoperative blood loss > 200 mL, need for perioperative blood transfusion, postoperative anaemia and operating time exceeding 180 minutes. Upon multivariate analysis, only perioperative blood transfusion was an independent AL risk factor. Recorded CRP was higher in AL patients when compared with non-AL cases on both the 3rd postoperative day (152.4 mg/L vs 93 mg/L, respectively; P < 0.0001) and the 6th postoperative day (130.5 mg/L vs 68.2 mg/L; P < 0.0001). PCT levels also significantly differed between AL and non-AL cases on the 3rd postoperative day (0.5 ng/mL vs 0.2 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.0001) and the 6th postoperative day (1.16 ng/mL vs 0.1 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.0001). Both CRP and PCT showed high negative predictive values (NPV) for the diagnosis of AL on both postoperative days. Conclusion: Following low restorative proctectomy, high NPV of CRP and PCT measurements for the diagnosis of anastomotic leaks may assist decision-making for early hospital discharge.
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