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2021 | 10(2) | 18-24
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Otorhinolaryngological manifestations of COVID-19

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COVID-19 manifests itself in a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, both in terms of their variety and severity. It can be asymptomatic or abortive, mild, moderate, severe and lightning, as septic with multiple organ failure and shock Typical leading symptoms of COVID-19 are: high fever poorly responding to drugs, severe loss of strength, chest pain, dyspnoea, pain headaches, bone and joint pain and muscle pain, until the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, many publications mention among the possible symptoms also others, not related to the involvement of the lower respiratory tract. These are gastrointestinal disorders, damage to the central and peripheral nervous system, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract and dysfunctions of the sensory organs. The aim of this literature review was to determine the frequency of various head and neck dysfunctions that are part of COVID-19. Symptoms of conjunctivitis, nasal mucosa, pharynx and larynx are reported by about of patients, but they do not always occur at the same time, as in infections caused, for example, by rhinoviruses. Anosmi / hyposmia or ageusia / hypogeusia occur with a similar frequency. Symptoms of damage to the equilibrium system, such as dizziness, are reported by approx. 1/3, vertigo and hearing loss approx. 5-6%, tinnitus approx. 10% of patients. Reports of coexistence with COVID-19 of peripheral paresis of the facial nerve are so far relatively few and often included in the neurological disorders, the frequency of which is also about 1/3 of COVID-19 cases. Importantly, both catarrhal symptoms and the others listed here may precede, co-occur or follow the appearance of the leading symptoms of COVID-19. They can also be the only symptoms of this disease. This should prompt otorhinolaryngologists to be particularly vigilant in this regard
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