Risk factors for impaired wound healing and prolonged hospitalization in patients after amputation of the lower limb above the knee joint
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ntroduction: Lower limb amputation is a surgery performed as a last resort, when all other therapeutic options have been exhausted. The duration of treatment lasts from a few to several months and depends on the extent of amputation, the patient's overall health and the course of the stump healing process. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the database of the General and Vascular Surgery Ward of the Nikolay Pirogov Regional Specialist Hospital in Łódź. Patients who underwent lower limb amputation at the transfemoral level in 2017 were analyzed. 92 patients undergoing surgery were qualified for the study. Patients were divided into two groups: those with no healing complications and those with stump healing complications. Medical records of both groups were analyzed for risk factors for impaired healing. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Patients with impaired stump healing most often had minimal bleeding and higher ASA scores compared to patients without healing complications. No differences between the two groups were found for the remaining parameters. Patients with complications needed an average of 28 days to heal the wound and spent an average of 40 days in hospital, compared to 14 and 21 days, respectively, for patients without complications. The percentage of deaths in the group of patients with complications was also significantly higher (35%) than in the group of patients without complications (5%). Conclusions: Statistically significant factors increasing the risk of impaired stump healing include high ASA scale and minimal muscle bleeding during surgery. Patients who experienced this complication are at greater risk of prolonged hospitalization and death in the postoperative period. This study showed statistically significant risk factors for impaired stump healing following amputation and confirmed the negative impact of this complication on the length of hospitalization and risk of death.
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