The influence of bowel preparation on postoperative complications in surgical treatment of colorectal cancer
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Introduction Colorectal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal cancer treated by departments and surgical clinics in Poland. Currently, the biggest challenge of surgery is to reduce the number of leaks in the bowel anastomoses and postoperative wound infections to a minimum. Objective Whether bowel preparation before surgery affects the early results of treatment? Methods The study was retrospective and included patients operated electively on one surgical center due to colorectal and rectal cancer in years 2013-2018. Patients who underwent surgery were divided into two groups in the study. The first was 109 patients with mechanical bowel irrigation. The second group of 118 patients, in addition to mechanical bowel preparation, received an oral antibiotic. Results The studied groups did not differ significantly in terms of traits that could affect the results of treatment within 30 days of surgery. Postoperative mortality was 0,9% and 0,85%. Complications: leakage of the bowel anastomosis 1,8% and 1,7%, postoperative obstruction 3,7% and 5,0%, wound dehiscence 2,75% and 0,85%, infection of the surgical site 13,8% and 3,4% respectively in the first and second group of patients. Conclusion 1. Mechanical bowel preparation in combination with the oral supply of antibiotic significantly reduces the frequency of surgical site infection compared to the mechanical rinsing itself. 2. Type of preparation of the intestine before the surgery does not significantly affect postoperative mortality and other complications, including anastomotic leak, but may be important for the frequency of postoperative wound dehiscence.
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