Endovascular treatment of visceral artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms – evaluation of efficacy and safety based on long-term results
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Background: With estimated prevalence of 1% of the general population, visceral artery aneurysms are not a frequent pathology, however, their rupture is a life-threatening occurrence with mortality rate ranging from 10% to 25%, up to 75% in case of pregnant women. Therefore, the identification and treatment of visceral artery aneurysms is of great importance in the prevention of early rupture. Purpose: To assess the effectiveness and safety of treatment of visceral artery aneurysms with various endovascular methods focusing on technical aspects, complications and long-term clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: 60 patients with visceral artery aneurysms were treated percutaneously. Various techniques were used: coiling (23), covered stents (15), thrombin (7), and other mixed techniques. Aneurysm characteristics, size and localization, procedural data, peri-procedural complications, technical success, 90- and 180-day clinical success and follow-up period (aneurysm exclusion, patency of the artery and complications) were prospectively analyzed. Results: The procedure was performed in 57 of 60 patients. In 56 of 57 patients aneurysms ware effectively excluded. The success rate was 93.3% (56 of 60 enrolled patients). Technical success after the intervention was 82.4%, after second 98.2%. Embolization with covered stents was characterized by the highest efficiency. Serious complications occurred in 1.8% of cases. Conclusions: The minimally invasive endovascular treatment of visceral artery aneurysms is characterized by high efficacy and safety. Good treatment results depend on proper assessment of the aneurysm’s morphology as well as on selection of the appropriate vascular approach and endovascular technique.
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