Tissue remodelling in chronic rhinosinusitis – review of literature
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CRS is a process involving a number of adverse changes in the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses and nasal polyps, e.g. increased fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, increased formation of fibrous tissue (subepithelial fibrosis) and tissue destruction. There are biomarkers whose levels can be increased in chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses: peripheral blood eosinophilia, IgE immunoglobulin, cytokines – IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-25, IL-33, periostin, P-glycoprotein, CXCL-12, CXCL-13, INF-Υ, TNFα, TGFβ1, albumins, eotaxin. These biomarkers are not pathognomonic for CRS. The concentration of biomarkers is also increased in bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. The TGFβ, in particular the β1 subunit, was identified as the main factor involved in the remodelling of tissue stroma. In conjunction with continuous improvement of tissue testing methods, it is advisable to search for new factors that will more accurately allow the assessment of tissue remodelling in the chronic processes of paranasal sinuses.
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