Mallory-Weiss syndrome based on own experience – diagnostics and modern principles of management
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Every gastrointestinal bleeding is an immediate threat to life, requiring close supervision in a hospital setting and making it mandatory to perform verification and endoscopic intervention. In some cases of a dynamic course, in order to make up deficiencies, it is necessary to use blood and blood products. One of the causes of bleeding located proximally to the ligament of Treitz is damage to the mucous membrane and deeper layers of the gastroesophageal junction, called Mallory-Weiss syndrome. The aim of the study was retrospective analysis of a selected group of patients with symptomatic upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the course of Mallory-Weiss syndrome, identification of typical characteristics of this disease entity in the studied population as well as demonstration of the effectiveness of endoscopic treatment using argon plasma coagulation (APC). Material and methods. The analysis included 2120 gastroscopy results, with 111 (5.24%) examinations conducted due to symptomatic gastrointestinal bleeding. In the studied group, endoscopic diagnosis of Mallory-Weiss syndrome was made in 22 patients (1.04%). Results. The studied disease entity was the cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 19.82% of cases. Although this condition is usually characterised by a mild and self-limiting course, 59.09% of patients in the studied group required therapeutic endoscopic intervention due to active bleeding. In 54.55%, argon plasma coagulation was successfully used to control the source of bleeding. Conclusions. Early gastroscopy, which remains both a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, guarantees effective control of the clinical course of Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Endoscopic argon plasma coagulation is an effective way to treat bleeding, used in endoscopic monotherapy or in combination with other procedures.
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