Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypercholesterolemia in patients with gallstone disease undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy
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Background: Gallstone disease (GSD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are connected with a high prevalence in the general population and they share common risk factors for their occurrence. Limited literature with inconsistent results is available, suggesting a potential association between these lifestyle-induced diseases. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD. The aim of this study was (1) to identify the prevalence of asymptomatic NAFLD or NASH in liver biopsy; (2) to identify the association of hypercholesterolemia with NAFLD in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted on patients who underwent LC for symptomatic gallstones in the Department of General Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, from 1st July 2013 to 31st December 2014. All included patients had ultrasonography (USG) and the following parameters tested: serum triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A wedge liver biopsy was obtained from free edge of the right liver lobe during LC and all biopsy specimens were analyzed by a single pathologist. Results: Among 101 patients included in the study, dyslipidemia was present in 49.50%. There was no association between NAFLD and serum cholesterol, TG or LDL-C (P, 0.428, 0.848, 0.371 respectively). NAFLD was confirmed in liver biopsy in 21.8% of patients but none had fibrosis or cirrhosis on biopsy. No complications were observed following liver biopsy. Conclusions: Liver biopsy during LC gives an opportunity to diagnose the disease at an early and reversible stage. It is feasible, safe and cost effective.
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