Prospects for the use of the achievements of regenerative medicine in otorhinolaryngology
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Regenerative medicine is focusing on searching for stem cells, which can be efficiently and safely used for regeneration of damaged tissues and organs. Pluripotent stem cells would be ideal for this purpose. It is because they have the ability to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers (ecto-, meso- and endoderm). One of the sources of their isolation are embryos. For many years, they are made unsuccessful attempts to use of very controversial embryonic stem cells that are isolated from embryos. So strong ethical controversy forced scientists to look for other, undoubted ethically, sources of pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells are proposed, as a more promising alternative to cells isolated from embryos. Unfortunately, both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells tend to genetic instability leading to the formation of teratomas. In parallel studies scientists try to use of stem cells isolated from adult tissues (e.g. bone marrow cells or adipose tissue) in the regeneration of parenchymal organs. Unfortunately, there is no convincing evidence for most of these cells that can regenerate damaged parenchymal organs. Regenerative medicine more frequently is employed in the otorhinolaryngological therapies. More and more researchers’ efforts are put into the development of an effective method of stimulation (in vitro) of pluripotent stem cells isolated from adult tissue for differentiation of the renewable progenitor stem cells which can keep their potential after transplantation into the recipient (e.g. in the treatment of imbalances or hearing loss). Moreover, there are promising methods for employing of the stem cells potential in tissue engineering as they are more effectively introduced as a clinical therapies.
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