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2018 | 67 | 1 | 95-107
Article title

Modyfikacje potranslacyjne tubuliny

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Title variants
EN
Tubulin posttranslational modifications
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Zarówno wolna tubulina, jak i tubulina wbudowana w mikrotubule może być modyfikowana potranslacyjnie poprzez przyłączenie różnorodnych grup funkcyjnych. Wśród kilkunastu zidentyfikowanych modyfikacji α- i β-tubuliny, przynajmniej niektóre zmiany potranslacyjne, jak acetylacja, detyrozynacja czy glutamylacja są zachowane w toku ewolucji od pierwotniaków do człowieka. Modyfikacje potranslacyjne tworzą specyficzny wzór na powierzchni mikrotubul, nazwany kodem tubulinowym, który jest rozpoznawany i "interpretowany" przez białka oddziałujące z mikrotubulami. W efekcie modyfikacje potranslacyjne tubuliny wpływają zarówno bezpośrednio na właściwości mikrotubul, jak i pośrednio, przez białka towarzyszące mikrotubulom. Poziom modyfikacji potranslacyjnych tubuliny na poszczególnych mikrotubulach jest zróżnicowany i zależy od rodzaju tworzonych struktur mikrotubularnych oraz typu komórek. Dodatkowo, poziom modyfikacji potranslacyjnych tubuliny może zmieniać się zależnie od stadium cyklu komórkowego lub stopnia zróżnicowania komórki. Intensywne badania prowadzone w ciągu ostatnich lat zaowocowały odkryciem kluczowych enzymów modyfikujących α- i β-tubulinę oraz częściowo, mechanizmu ich działania. Nadal jednak jesteśmy dalecy od pełnego zrozumienia roli modyfikacji potranslacyjnych mikrotubul w regulacji procesów komórkowych.
EN
Both, free tubulin and tubulin incorporated into microtubules can be extensively posttranslationally modified. Among numerous identified modifications of α- and β-tubulin, at least some modifications such as acetylation, detyrosination or glutamylation are highly evolutionarily conserved from protists to man. The posttranslational modifications of tubulin form a specific pattern on the microtubule surface, called a tubulin code, that is recognized and interpreted by microtubule interacting proteins. Thus, tubulin posttranslational modifications can affect the microtubule properties, both directly and indirectly, by regulating the interactions with microtubule associated proteins. The level of the tubulin posttranslational modifications vary on different types of microtubules and depends upon the type of the microtubular structures and the cell type. Additionally, the levels of tubulin modifications can change during the cell cycle and cell differentiation. The extensive studies carried out during the last years resulted in a discovery of some of the key enzymes that modify α- and β-tubulin as well as partial understanding of the mechanisms of their action. However, despite all the efforts we are still far from the full understanding of the significance of the microtubule posttranslational modifications in the regulation of cellular processes.
Journal
Year
Volume
67
Issue
1
Pages
95-107
Physical description
Dates
published
2018
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