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Journal
2018 | 67 | 1 | 195-205
Article title

Budowa rzęsek - od ultrastruktury do funkcji

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EN
Motile cilia - from ultrastructure to function
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Rzęski są strukturami zachowanymi w toku ewolucji, występującymi u większości Eukaryota. Ze względu na strukturę i pełnione funkcje wyróżnia się dwa typy rzęsek: nieruchome rzęski pierwotne, tworzone w fazie spoczynkowej cyklu komórkowego oraz rzęski ruchome. Rzęski pierwotne są odpowiedzialne za odbieranie i przekazywanie sygnałów ze środowiska do wnętrza komórki, natomiast rzęski ruchome umożliwiają ruch pojedynczych komórek, a w organizmach wielokomórkowych, w tym u człowieka, przemieszczanie wydzielin lub drobin wzdłuż powierzchni komórek nabłonka wyścielającego m.in. drogi oddechowe, jajowód i komory mózgowia. Szkielet obu typów rzęsek, tzw. aksomena, zbudowany jest z dziewięciu obwodowych par mikrotubul. Rzęski ruchome mają dodatkowo dwie mikrotubule centralne, które wraz z przyłączonymi do nich kompleksami białkowymi tworzą kompleks pary centralnej, oraz makrokompleksy białek przyłączone do mikrotubul obwodowych. Makrokompleksy te są rozmieszczone periodycznie wzdłuż mikrotubul obwodowych, tworząc wzór powtarzający się co 96 nm. W każdym powtórzeniu znajdują się cztery zewnętrzne ramiona dyneinowe, siedem wewnętrznych ramion dyneinowych, trzy promienie łączące, po jednym kompleksie N-DRC i MIA, oraz inne, mniejsze kompleksy. Skoordynowane działanie tych makrokompleksów jest niezbędne do prawidłowego ruchu rzęsek.
EN
Cilia are highly evolutionarily conserved structures, assembled by most of the eukaryotic cells. Because of the differences in the ultrastructure and function, cilia are divided into two categories: immotile primary cilia that function as antennae and receive signals from the environment and transmit them into the cell, and motile cilia, which enable motility of the single cell. In multicellular organisms including humans the coordinated beating of motile cilia shifts fluids or particles along the surface of the cell in the respiratory tracks, Fallopian tube or brain ventricles. Both primary and motile cilia are supported by a microtubular skeleton, the axoneme, composed of nine periph- eral microtubule doublets. Additionally, motile cilia have a pair of central microtubules with their appendages, the so-called central pair (CP) complex, and macrocomplexes that are periodically attached to the microtubules of the peripheral doublets forming a specific pattern along the microtubules that repeats every 96 nm. The 96-nm repeat contains 4 outer and 7 inner dynein arms, 3 radial spokes, a single nexin-dynein regulatory complex and a modifier of inner arms as well as other minor complexes. The coordinated action of these macrocomplexes is indispensable for proper cilia beating.
Journal
Year
Volume
67
Issue
1
Pages
195-205
Physical description
Dates
published
2018
Contributors
  • Pracownia Cytoszkieletu i Biologii Rzęsek, Zakład Biologii Komórki, Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. M. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • Laboratory of Cytoskeleton and Cilia Biology, Department of Cell Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, 3 Pasteur Str., 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
  • Pracownia Cytoszkieletu i Biologii Rzęsek, Zakład Biologii Komórki, Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. M. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • Laboratory of Cytoskeleton and Cilia Biology, Department of Cell Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, 3 Pasteur Str., 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
author
  • Pracownia Cytoszkieletu i Biologii Rzęsek, Zakład Biologii Komórki, Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. M. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • Laboratory of Cytoskeleton and Cilia Biology, Department of Cell Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, 3 Pasteur Str., 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
author
  • Pracownia Cytoszkieletu i Biologii Rzęsek, Zakład Biologii Komórki, Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. M. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • Laboratory of Cytoskeleton and Cilia Biology, Department of Cell Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, 3 Pasteur Str., 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
author
  • Pracownia Cytoszkieletu i Biologii Rzęsek, Zakład Biologii Komórki, Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. M. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • Laboratory of Cytoskeleton and Cilia Biology, Department of Cell Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, 3 Pasteur Str., 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
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bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv67p195kz
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