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2017 | 66 | 4 | 595-608
Article title

Pochwała bursy Fabrycjusza, czyli co współczesna immunologia zawdzięcza ptakom?

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Title variants
EN
Tribute to bursa of Fabicius - what is the modern immunology' debt to the birds?
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Wiele odkryć, fundamentalnych dla rozwoju biologii XX w., dokonało się dzięki badaniom prowadzonym na ptakach. Wśród nich należy wymienić opracowanie przez Ludwika Pasteura podstaw i praktycznego stosowania szczepionek oraz wskazanie przez Bruce'a Glicka roli bursy Fabrycjusza, istotnej dla zrozumienia podstawowych mechanizmów odpornościowych. Zwłaszcza poznanie funkcjonalnej dychotomii układu odpornościowego ptaków, u których bursa Fabrycjusza stanowi centralne miejsce dojrzewania limfocytów odpowiedzialnych za produkcję przeciwciał, skłoniło uczonych do poszukiwania u ssaków odpowiednika bursy Fabrycjusza. Dzięki tym odkryciom nowoczesna immunologia mogła zacząć swój dynamiczny rozwój, posługując się najnowszymi metodami biologii molekularnej. A bursa Fabrycjusza nadal przyciąga zainteresowanie wielu badaczy, wykrywających liczne peptydy pochodzenia bursalnego wywierające efekty regulacyjne nie tylko w układzie odpornościowym ptaków, lecz także o szerszym działaniu biologicznym, w odniesieniu do procesów odpornościowych ssaków, nowotworzenia czy działania antyoksydacyjnego. Cechy anatomiczne układu odpornościowego kury domowej, takie jak brak węzłów chłonnych, eozynofili czy limfocytów rezydujących mogą wskazywać na prostotę jego budowy. Dodatkowo zsekwencjonowanie genomu kury domowej pokazało, że u ptaków wiele procesów odpornościowych może się odbywać przy bardziej oszczędnym repertuarze cytokin, chemokin, receptorów i cząsteczek kostymulujących niż ten, który występuje u ssaków. Jednak to uproszczenie jest tylko pozorne, ponieważ układ odpornościowy ptaków spełnia właściwie wszystkie funkcje jakie spełnia układ odpornościowy ssaków.
EN
Attribution by Bruce Glick in the fifties/sixties of twenty century an essential role of the bursa of Fabricius in the differentiation of a particular lymphocyte population in the chicken was a milestone in the modern immunology development. Incoming studies on both avian and mammalian experimental models were able to prove a functional dissociation of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response and to demonstrate that the bursa of Fabricius plays an important role in antibody production. Subsequently, the research was oriented towards the identification of the mammalian "bursa-equivalent" where the antibody-producing lymphocytes, named B-cells in the honor to the bursa of Fabricius, should be generated. Finally, this role in mammals has been proven for the embryonic liver and for the bone marrow lymphopoiesis in the postnatal life. Apart from that, bursa of Fabricius is an endocrine organ producing several peptides exhibiting immunoregulatory activity, not only towards the avian immune functions but also influencing mammalian immunity, both in vivo and in vitro. The most important among them seem to be: bursin (tripeptide discovered as the first bursal peptide), BASP (bursal anti-steroidogenic peptide, exerting and inhibitory effect on the steroid hormone synthesis in the ovarian follicles and adrenal cortex) and bursopentin (BP5, a peptide with an antioxidative properties). The anatomical features of the domestic chicken immune system, such as lack of lymph nodes, eosinophils or resident lymphocytes, may indicate the simplicity of its organization. In addition, the sequencing of the domestic chicken genome has shown that many immune processes in birds may occur with a more scant repertoire of cytokines, chemokines, receptors and costimulatory molecules than those found in mammals. However, this simplification is only apparent because the avian immune system fulfills all the functions as those of the mammalian one.
Journal
Year
Volume
66
Issue
4
Pages
595-608
Physical description
Dates
published
2017
Contributors
  • Zakład Fizjologii Zwierząt, Instytut Zoologii, Wydział Biologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Polska
  • Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Poland
  • Zakład Fizjologii Zwierząt, Instytut Zoologii, Wydział Biologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Polska
  • Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Poland
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv66p595kz
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