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2017 | 66 | 4 | 575-593
Article title

Układ odpornościowy ssaków w obronie integralności organizmu

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EN
Immune system of mammals in maintenance of body integrity
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Ważną funkcją układu odpornościowego ssaków jest obrona przed patogenami, której podstawą jest zdolność komórek odporności wrodzonej i nabytej do aktywacji wskutek wiązania antygenów przez receptory komórkowe. Jednak, układ odpornościowy ssaków narażony jest przede wszystkim na kontakt z antygenami własnymi, mikrobioty jelitowej, pokarmowymi czy antygenami płodu (w przypadku osobników płci żeńskiej), a antygeny organizmów patogennych stanowią w tej grupie mniejszość. W warunkach fizjologicznych odpowiedź odpornościowa wywołana jest przez antygeny patogenów, natomiast inne, "nieszkodliwe" antygeny (własne, mikrobioty, płodowe) wywołują tolerancję. W tej pracy opisano najważniejsze mechanizmy, które zapobiegają reakcji odpornościowej na antygeny własne i chronią organizm przed rozwojem chorób autoimmunizacyjnych. Przedstawiono podstawowe mechanizmy ochrony płodu przed atakiem układu odpornościowego matki. Scharakteryzowano rolę interakcji mikrobioty jelitowej z komórkami odpornościowymi w błonie śluzowej przewodu pokarmowego, której skutkiem jest tolerancja na antygeny mikrobioty i pokarmowe, przy jednoczesnym zachowaniu gotowości do obrony przed mikroorganizmami chorobotwórczymi. Zwrócono uwagę na pozytywne skutki działania limfocytów autoreaktywnych w rozwoju narządów i utrzymaniu homeostazy układu odpornościowego.
EN
An important function of the mammalian immune system is the defense against pathogens, which is based on the ability of innate and adaptive immune cells to undergo activation by binding antigens by cell receptors. However, the mammalian immune system is primarily exposed to self antigens, intestinal mibrobiota, food, or fetal antigens (in the case of females), and the antigens of pathogenic organisms constitute a minority in this group. Under normal physiological conditions, the immune response is triggered by pathogen antigens, while other "harmless" antigens (self, microbiota, fetus) induce tolerance. This work describes the most important mechanisms that prevent the immune response to self antigens and protect against autoimmune diseases. Basic mechanisms of fetal protection against the attack of the mother’s immune system are presented. The role of intestinal microbiota interactions with immune cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa is characterized, which results in tolerance to microbiota and food antigens while maintaining the ability to defend against pathogenic microorganisms. Some positive effects of the autoreactivity of lymphocytes on organ development and homeostasis maintenance are emphasized.
Journal
Year
Volume
66
Issue
4
Pages
575-593
Physical description
Dates
published
2017
Contributors
  • Zakład Immunologii, Instytut Zoologii, Wydział Biologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Polska
  • Department of Immunology, Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Poland
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bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv66p575kz
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