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2017 | 66 | 3 | 401-411
Article title

Wybrane aspekty strategii rozrodczej pająków - poliandria

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Title variants
EN
Selected aspects of spider reproduction - polyandry
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Obserwacje strategii rozrodczych zwierząt wskazują, że w wielu taksonach zwierząt występuje poliandria. Doskonałym modelem do badań nad poliandrią są pająki, na których wykonano wiele prac eksperymentalnych dotyczących różnych aspektów zachowań poliandrycznych. Przetestowano wiele różnych hipotez opierających się głównie na korzyściach bezpośrednich (materialnych) oraz pośrednich (genetycznych), które są uważane za główne siły odpowiedzialne za ewolucję i utrzymanie poliandrii. Pomimo korzyści płynących z wielokrotnych kopulacji, poliandria samic generuje też koszty, które ponoszą obie płci. Poliandria samic i budowa ich spermatek stwarzają potencjał dla konkurencji spermy, stąd też samce, aby jej uniknąć lub ograniczyć do minimum, rozwinęły różne adaptacje morfologiczne, fizjologiczne i behawioralne. Magazynowanie ejakulatów kilku samców w spermatekach o różnej morfologii może wpływać na priorytet spermy pierwszego lub ostatniego partnera samicy przy założeniu, że masy spermy są uwarstwione w spermatekach, gdzie nie następuje mieszanie się spermy lub też, występuje to w niewielkim stopniu. Stopień mieszania się spermy można określić u gatunków z wieloma złożami poprzez sprawdzenie, jak zmienia się ojcostwo u potomstwa z kolejnych kokonów. Na wzorzec ojcostwa u pająków wpływa nie tylko kolejność partnerów samicy, ale też czas trwania kopulacji oraz jakość i ilość spermy w ejakulatach.
EN
Observations of animal mating strategies indicate that polyandry is common in many species. Spiders have been frequently used in experiments investigating different aspects of polyandric behavior and can therefore serve as models for studying this topic. Numerous studies have examined direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits of polyandry, considered as the main force behind the evolution and maintenance of this phenomenon. Despite of benefits, multiple mating generates costs suffered by both sexes. Female polyandry and the structure of spermathecae create opportunities for sperm competition. In response males have developed a range of morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations. The fact that ejaculates of several mates can be stored in spermathecae of different morphology determines the first or last mate sperm precedence, assuming that sperm is stored with little or no mixing. In species with multiple sperm deposits, sperm mixing can be evaluated by observing paternity changes in offspring from subsequent cocoons. A paternity pattern in spiders is determined not only by the secondary mate order, but also by the duration of copulation and the quality and quantity of sperm in ejaculates.
Journal
Year
Volume
66
Issue
3
Pages
401-411
Physical description
Dates
published
2017
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Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv66p401kz
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