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2017 | 66 | 2 | 313-325
Article title

Gruźlica - zapomniana choroba, o której warto pamiętać

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EN
Tuberculosis - the forgotten disease worth to remember
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Gruźlica wciąż stanowi poważny problem epidemiologiczny na całym świecie. Ponad 130 lat wytężonej pracy naukowców na całym świecie nie przyniosło zapewniającej protekcję szczepionki przeciwgruźliczej, szybkich i pewnych metod diagnozowania tej choroby oraz skutecznych sposobów leczenia gruźlicy wywoływanej przez izolowane ze wzrastającą częstością wielolekooporne prątki gruźlicy. Wywołujące gruźlicę prątki Mycobacterium tuberculosis są Gram-dodatnimi pałeczkami tlenowymi o unikatowej w świecie bakterii ścianie komórkowej, która zbudowana jest, poza peptydoglikanem i polisacharydami, z nietypowych glikolipidów i lipidów, w tym długołańcuchowych kwasów mykolowych, będących silnymi modulatorami układu odpornościowego człowieka. Diagnozowanie gruźlicy oparte jest na hodowli prątków na podłożach bakteriologicznych, obok której wykonywane jest badanie bakterioskopowe plwociny, radiologiczna ocena zmian w klatce piersiowej, tuberkulinowy test skórny, czy też testy molekularne (AMPLICOR Mycobacterium tuberculosisis Xpert MTB/RIF) lub metody wykorzystujące mykobakteriofagi (FastPlaque oraz ReporterPhage). Istotnym problem epidemiologicznym są uśpione (latente) zakażenia prątkami gruźlicy, które wykrywa się testami interferonowymi (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus oraz T-SPOT.TB). Mimo znacznego postępu wciąż brakuje szybkich, wiarygodnych i tanich testów diagnostycznych gruźlicy.
EN
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious epidemiological problem throughout the world. More than 130 years of hard work of scientists around the world has not delivered fully protective vaccine for TB, fast and reliable methods for diagnosing and effective treatment of tuberculosis caused by multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB), isolated recently with an increasing incidence. MDR- TB are Gram-positive, aerobic bacilli with the unique bacterial cell wall, which is built not only of peptidoglycan and polysaccharides, but also of unusual glycolipids and lipids, including long-chain mycolic acids, which are potential modulators of the human immune system. Diagnosis of tuberculosis is based on the culture of mycobacteria on bacteriological media, alongside which are carried out: bacterioscopy of sputum, radiographic assessment of changes in the chest, tuberculin skin test, or molecular test (AMPLICOR Mycobacterium tuberculosisis Xpert MTB/RIF), and tests with mycobacteriohages (FastPlaque and ReporterPhage). The important epidemiological issue are dormant (latent) mycobacterial infections, which can be detected by interferon-γ release assays (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus and T-SPOT.TB). Despite considerable progress we are still lacking high-speed, reliable and low-cost diagnostic tests for tuberculosis.
Journal
Year
Volume
66
Issue
2
Pages
313-325
Physical description
Dates
published
2017
Contributors
  • Katedra Immunologii i Biologii Infekcyjnej, Instytut Mikrobiologii, Biotechnologii i Immunologii, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Uniwersytet Łódzki, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Polska
  • Department of Immunology and Infectious Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, The Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Poland
  • Katedra Immunologii i Biologii Infekcyjnej, Instytut Mikrobiologii, Biotechnologii i Immunologii, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Uniwersytet Łódzki, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Polska
  • Department of Immunology and Infectious Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, The Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Poland
  • Katedra Immunologii i Biologii Infekcyjnej, Instytut Mikrobiologii, Biotechnologii i Immunologii, Wydział Biologii i Ochrony Środowiska, Uniwersytet Łódzki, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Polska
  • Department of Immunology and Infectious Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, The Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Poland
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