Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2016 | 65 | 4 | 563-571
Article title

The content of toxic metals in different types of tea and their impact on consumers health

Title variants
Languages of publication
Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, which, along with a number of beneficial health ingredients, such as trace elements, also contains undesired substances - as impurities. Among the impurities occur heavy metals, and their presence in tea leaves can pose serious problems to human health because they are not biodegradable, remain in the environment and can become part of the food chain. The total metal content of the tea leaves and infusions depends on the type of tea (green, black) and on the influence of other factors, including the properties of the soil. Despite the limited extent of metal migration from the dried tea to infusions, tea pollution with metals such as lead, cadmium or mercury is not indifferent to human health.
Herbata jest jednym z najbardziej popularnych napojów na świecie, który obok wielu korzystnych dla zdrowia składników, jak mikroelementy, zawiera również te niepożądane - stanowiące zanieczyszczenie. Wśród nich znajdują się metale ciężkie, których obecność w liściach herbaty może stwarzać poważne problemy dla zdrowia ludzkiego, ponieważ nie ulegają one biodegradacji, a pozostając w środowisku mogą stać się częścią łańcucha pokarmowego. Całkowita zawartość metali w liściach herbat oraz w naparach zależy od rodzaju herbaty (zielona, czarna) oraz od wpływu wielu innych czynników, w tym właściwości gleby. Pomimo ograniczonej migracji metali z suszu do naparów zanieczyszczenie herbat metalami tj. ołów, kadm czy rtęć nie jest obojętne dla zdrowia człowieka. REFERENCES
Physical description
  • Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Papieża Pawła VI 3, 71-459 Szczecin, Poland
  • Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Papieża Pawła VI 3, 71-459 Szczecin, Poland
  • Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Papieża Pawła VI 3, 71-459 Szczecin, Poland
  • Angelova M., Asenova S., Nedkova V., Koleva-Kolarova R., 2011. Cooper in the human organism. Trakia J. Sci. 9, 88-98.
  • Balentine D., Wiserman S. A., Bouwens L. C. M., 1997. The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 37, 693-704.
  • Bassiouny M. A., Kuroda S., Yang J., 2008. Topographic and radiographic profile assessment dental erosion. III: Effect of green and black tea on human dentition. Gen. Dent. 56, 451-461.
  • Bolling B. W., Chen C. Y., Blumberg J. B., 2009. Tea and health: Preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly? Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care. 12, 42-48.
  • Bradberry S. M., 1996. Elemental mercury induced skin granuloma: a case report and review of the literature. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 65, 1273-1288.
  • Brzezicha-Cirocka J., Grembecka M., Szefer P., 2016. Monitoring of essential and heavy metals in green tea from different geographical origins. Environ. Monit. Assess. 188, 1-11.
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2011. Mercury in dried tea, soft drinks and corn syrup.
  • Chantre P., Lairon D., 2002. Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine 9, 3-8.
  • Cooper R., Moorè J., Moorè M. D., 2005. Medicinal benefits of green tea. Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 11, 521-528.
  • Davies M. J., Judd J. T., Baer D. J., Clevidence B. A., Paul D. R., Edwards A. J., Wiseman S. A., Muesing R. A., Chen S. C., 2003. Black tea consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. J. Nutr. 133, 3298S-3302S.
  • Duffy S. J., Keaney J. F. Jr., Holbrook M., Gokce N., Swerdloff P. L., Frei B., Vita J. A., 2001. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 104, 151-156.
  • Dulloo A. G., Duret C., Rohrer D., Girardier L., Mensi N., Fathi M., Chantre P., Vandermander J., 1999. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70, 1040-1045.
  • Forsberg J., McQuatters J., 2016. Mercury determination in tea leaves, INCT-TL-1, USEPA method 7473, using the Teledyne Leeman Labs Hydra IIc Combustion CVAAS. Teledyne Leeman Labs. Aplication Note - AN1603.
  • Garba Z.N., Ubam S., Babando A.A., Galadima A., 2015. Quantitative assessment of heavy metals from selected tea brands marketed in Zaria, Nigeria. J. Phys. Sci. 26(1), 43-51.
  • Geleijnse J. M., Launer L. J., Van der Kuip D. A., Hofman A., Witteman J.C., 2002. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 75, 880-886.
  • Gibson R. S., 2005. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. Oxford Univ. New York, 697-711.
  • Golding J., Steer C. D., Hibbeln J. R., Emmett P. M., Lowery T., Jones R., 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ. Health Perspect. 121, 1214-1218.
  • Greenop J., 1997. The lifestyle food index for South African consumers. Demeter Publications, Gauteng, South Africa.
  • Hakim I. A., Alsaif M. A., Alduwaihy M., Al-Rubeaan K., Al-Nuaim A. R., Al-Attas O. S., 2003. Tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in Saudi adults: results from a Saudi national study. Prev. Med. 36, 64-70.
  • Hegarty V. M., May H. M., Khaw K. T., 2000. Tea drinking and bone mineral density in older women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 1003-1007.
  • Henning M. S., 2004. Bioavailability an antioxidant activy of tea flavanols after consumption of green tea, black tea, or a green tea extract supplement. Amer.J. Clin. Nutr. 80, 1558-1564.
  • Hertog M. G. L., Feskens E. J. M., Hollman P. C. H., et al., 1993. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary disease: the Zutphen elderly study. Lancet 342, 1007-1011.
  • Hirata K., Shimada K., Watanabe H., Otsuka R., Tokai K., Yoshiyama M., Homma S., Yoshikawa J., 2004. Black tea increases coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy male subjects. Am. J. Cardiol. 93, 1384-1388.
  • Hosseni S. M., Shakerian A., Moghini A., 2012. Cadmium and lead content in several brands of black tea (Camelia sinesis) in Iran. J. Food Bioscien. Technol. 3, 67-72.
  • Isemura M., Saeki K., Kimura T., Hayakawa S., Minami T., Sazuka M., 2000. Tea catechins and related polyphenols as anti-cancer agents. Biofactors 13, 81-85.
  • Ishikawa T., Suzukawa M., Ito T., Yoshida H., Ayaori M., Nishiwaki M., Yonemura A., Hara Y., Nakamura H., 1997. Effect of tea flavonoid supplementation on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66, 261-266.
  • Kamath A. B., Wang L., Das H., Li L., Reinhold V. N., Bukowski J. F., 2003. Antigens in tea-beverage prime human gamma delta cells in vitro and in vivo for memory and nonmemory antibacterial cytokine responses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 6009-6014.
  • Keli S. O., Hertog M. G. L., Feskens E. J. M., Kromhout D., 1996. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke. Arch. Intern. Med. 156, 637-642.
  • Kelly S. P., Gomez-Ramirez M., Montesi J. L., Foxe J. J., 2008. L-Theanine and caffeine in combination affect human cognition as evidenced by oscillatory alpha-band activity and attention task performance. J. Nutr. 138, 1572S-1577S.
  • Kushiyama M., Shimazaki Y., Murakami M., Yamashita Y., 2009. Relationship between intake of green tea and periodontal disease. J. Periodontol. 80, 372-377.
  • Larsson S. C., Virtamo J., Wolk A., 2013. Black tea conspumption and risk of stroke in women and men. Ann. Epidemiol. 23, 157-160.
  • Linke H. A., LeGeros R. Z., 2003. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters. Int. J. Food. Sci. Nutr. 54, 89-95.
  • Lloyd T., Johnson-Rollings N., Eggli D. F., Kieselhorst K., Mauger E. A., Cusatis D. C., 2000. Bone status among postmenopausal women with different habitual caffeine intakes:a longitudinal investigation. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 19, 256-261.
  • Mandel S., Weinreb O., Reznichenko L., Kalfon L., Amit T., 2006. Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, non-toxic iron chelators to 'iron out iron' from the brain. J. Neural. Transm. 71, 249-257.
  • Mayfou J. A., Al Bayati H. S., Emmima E. M., 2015. Quantitative assesement of (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Mn) in some brands of green tea marked in Libya. ARPN J. Sci. Technol. 5, 303-310.
  • Mubeen H., Naeem I., Taskeen A., Adiqe Z., 2009. Investigations of heavy metals in commercial spices brands. NY Sci. J. 2, 20-26.
  • Mukamal K. J., Maclure M., Muller J. E., Sherwood J. B., Mittleman M. A., 2002. Tea consumption and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 105, 2476.
  • Muller M., Anke M., Illing-Gunther H., 1997. Availabity of aluminium from tea and coffee. 205, 170-173.
  • Murase T., Nagasawa A., Suzuki J., Hase T., Tokimitsu I., 2002. Beneficial effects of tea catechins on diet-induced obesity: stimulation of lipid catabolism in the liver. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 26, 1459-1464.
  • Murase T., Haramizu S., Shimotoyodome A., Tokimitsu I., 2005. Reduction of diet-induced obesity by a combination of tea-catechin intake and regular swimming. Int. J. Obesity 30, 561-568.
  • Murase T., Haramizu S., Shimotoyodome A., Tokimitsu I., Hase T., 2006. Green tea extract improves running endurance in mice by stimulating lipid utilization during exercise. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 290, R1550-1556.
  • Nagao T., Hase T., Tokimitsu I., 2007. A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risk in humans. Obesity 15, 1473-1483.
  • Niehs, 2013. Lead and your health. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
  • Othman A., Al-Ansi S., Al-Tufail M., 2012. Determination of lead in Saudi Arabian imported green tea by ICP-MS. E-J. Chem. 9, 79-82.
  • Popkin B. M., Armstrong L. E., Bray G. M., Caballero B., Frei B., Willett W. C., 2006. A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States. Am. J. Clin. 83, 529-542.
  • Powell J. J., Burden T. J., Thompson R. P. H., 1998. In vitro mineral availability from digested tea: A rich dietary source of manganese. Analyst 123, 1721-1724.
  • Pytlakowska K., Kita A., Janoska P., Połowniak M., Kozik V., 2011. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medical herbs and their infusions. Food Chem. 135, 494-501.
  • Sarkar S., Sett P., Chowdhury T., Ganguly D. K., 2000. Effect of black tea on teeth. J. Indian. Soc. Pedod. Prev. Dent. 18, 139-140.
  • Shimotoyodome A., Haramizu S., Inaba M., Murase T., Tokimitsu I., 2005. Exercise and green tea extract stimulate fat oxidation and prevent obesity in mice. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 37, 1884-1892.
  • Song W. O., Chun O. K., 2008. Tea is the major source of flavan-3-ol and flavonol in the U.S. diet. J. Nutr. 138, 1543S-1547S.
  • Statistical Yearbook of The Republic of Poland, 2015. Year LXXV, Warsaw.
  • Street R., Száková J., Drábek O., Mládková L., 2006. The Status of Micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in Tea and Tea Infusions in Selected Samples Imported to the Czech Republic. Czech J. Food Sci. 24, 62-71.
  • Unep, 2002. Chemicals. Global Mercury Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme.
  • Venables M. C., Hulston C. J., Cox H. R., Jeukendrup A. E., 2008. Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87, 778-784.
  • Vermeer M. A., Mulder T. P., Molhuizen H. O., 2008. Theaflavins from black tea, especially theaflavin-3-gallate, reduce the incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 56, 12031-12036.
  • Watts D. L., 1990. The nutritional relationships of manganese. J. Orthomol. Med. 5, 219-222.
  • Weisburger J. H., 1999. Tea and health: the underlying mechanisms. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 20, 271-275.
  • Who, 2010. Preventing disease through healthy environments. Exposure to cadmium: a major public health concern.
  • Winiarska Mieczan A., Kwiecień M., Kwiatkowska K., 2011. Lead and cadmium content in herbal teas. Probl. Hig. Epidemiol. 92, 667-670.
  • Wojciechowska-Mazurek M., Starska K., Mania M., Rebeniak M., Karłowski K, 2010. Pierwiastki szkodliwe dla zdrowia w herbacie - ocena zagrożenia dla zdrowia. Bromat. Chem. Toksykol. 43, 233-239.
  • Wróbel K., Wróbel K., Colunga-Urbina E. M., 2000. Determination of total aluminum, chromium, cooper, iron, manganese and nickel and their fractions leached to the infusions of black tea, green tea, Hibiscus sabdarifa and Ilex paraguariensis (Mate). Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 78, 271-280.
  • Wu C. H., Yang Y. C., Yao W. J., Lu F. H., Wu J. S., Chang C. J., 2002. Epidemiological evidence of increased bone mineral density in habitual tea drinkers. Arch. Intern. Med. 162, 1001-1006.
  • Zhang Y., James M., Middleton F. A., Davis R. L., 2005. Transcriptional analysis of multiple brain regions in Parkinson's disease supports the involvement of specific protein processing, energy metabolism, and signaling pathways, and suggests novel disease mechanisms. Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 137, 5-16.
  • Zhong W. S., Ren T., Zhao L. J., 2016. Determination of Pb (lead), Cd (cadmium), Cr (chromium), Cu (cooper), and Ni (nickel) in Chinese tea with high-resolution continuum Skurce graphite furnace atomic absorption spektrometry. J. Food Drug Anal. 24, 46-55.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.