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2016 | 65 | 2 | 257-266
Article title

Grzyby endofityczne traw - nasi wrogowie czy sprzymierzeńcy?

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EN
Fungal endophytes of grasses - our enemies or allies?
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Grzyby z rodzaju Epichloë to tzw. endosymbionty fakultatywne wielu gatunków traw. W stadium płciowym grzyb pasożytuje na roślinie: tworzy on na źdźbłach trawy specyficzne struktury zwane podkładkami, hamując jej kwitnienie i produkcję nasion. Dodatkowo, podkładki powstające na pędach wegetatywnych zmniejszają intensywność fotosyntezy. W stadium bezpłciowym Epichloë jest endofitem i jego obecność w tkankach rośliny nie daje żadnych widocznych symptomów choroby. Niemniej wiąże się ona z produkcją alkaloidów mających toksyczny wpływ na roślinożerców, co jest szczególnie istotne z gospodarczego punktu widzenia, w przypadku traw pastwiskowych i zwierząt hodowlanych. Mykotoksyny u bydła wywołują m.in. biegunki, problemy oddechowe, brak apetytu, martwicę tkanek czy poronienia. Prowadzi to do znacznych strat ekonomicznych. Intensyfikacja badań nad endofitami nastąpiła na przełomie lat 80. i 90., a dzięki poznaniu szczegółów biologii tych organizmów zaczęto lepiej zdawać sobie sprawę z ich właściwości. Z jednej strony korzystnych dla gospodarza (przynajmniej w określonych warunkach): trawy posiadające grzyba w stadium endofitycznym mają często większą biomasę, produkują więcej nasion, lepiej sobie radzą w skrajnych warunkach środowiska (np. w czasie suszy) i są bardziej odporne na roślinożerców (dzięki alkaloidom) od roślin niezainfekowanych. Z drugiej strony bardziej widoczne stało się zagrożenie, jakie endofity mogą stanowić dla zwierząt hodowlanych. Od tego momentu szczególnie intensywnie rozwijają się badania dotyczące ewentualnego praktycznego wykorzystania tych mikroorganizmów i produkowanych przez nie substancji, np. w medycynie, biotechnologii czy do ochrony roślin. Jednocześnie podejmuje się działania mające na celu zniwelowanie niekorzystnych skutków ich obecności w trawach paszowych. Na drodze selekcji oraz manipulacji genetycznych poszukuje się niepatogennych szczepów endofitów, nie powodujących chorób bydła, ani nie hamujących rozwoju roślin.
EN
Fungi of the genus Epichloë are so-called facultative endosymbionts of many grasses species. However, in the sexual stage fungus parasitizes on the plant; it creates specific structures, called stromata, on the blades of the grass inhibiting its flowering and seed production. Additionally, stromata formed on vegetative shoots diminish intensity of photosynthesis. In the asexual stage, Epichloë is an endophyte and its presence in the plants' tissues does not give any visible symptoms of the disease. Still, it involves production of alkaloids which have toxic effect on herbivores - it is particularly important from an economic point of view in the case of pasture grasses and livestock. Mycotoxins cause to cattle such conditions as diarrhea, respiratory problems, lack of appetite, tissue necrosis or miscarriages. This leads to large economic losses. Intensification of research on the endophytes has started at the turn of the 80's and 90's. Knowing details of the biology of these organisms, scientists began to be more aware of their properties. On the one hand, beneficial for the host (at least in certain circumstances): grasses with the fungus in the endophytic stage often have greater biomass, produce more seeds, cope better in extreme environmental conditions (e.g. during drought) and are more resistant to herbivores (thanks to alkaloids) than uninfected plants. On the other hand, the risk that endophytes can be dangerous for farm animals has become more evident. From that moment the studies on the possible practical deployment of these microorganisms and the substances they produce have been intensified and some of the results obtained found application in medicine, biotechnology and in plant's protection. At the same time researchers try to redress the adverse effects of fungi presence in the pasture grasses. By selection and genetic manipulation they search for nonpathogenic strains that neither cause disease to cattle, nor inhibit plant growth.
Journal
Year
Volume
65
Issue
2
Pages
257-266
Physical description
Dates
published
2016
Contributors
  • Zakład Taksonomii Roślin, Wydział Biologii, Uniwersytet Adama Mickiewicza, Umultowska 89, 60-995 Poznań, Polska
  • Department of Plant Taxonomy, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 60-995 Poznan, Poland
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