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2016 | 65 | 2 | 227-234
Article title

Nanocząsteczki złota w terapii przeciwnowotworowej

Title variants
Gold nanoparticles in anticancer therapy
Languages of publication
Nanotechnologia jest nauką stosunkowo młodą, obejmuje syntezę i badanie obiektów o rozmiarach rzędu 10-9 metra. Jedną z prób zastosowania nanotechnologii jest wykorzystanie nanocząsteczek w terapii przeciwnowotworowej. Prowadzone prace badawcze mają na celu syntezę całkowicie nowych związków terapeutycznych oraz podniesienie wydajności terapii konwencjonalnych radioterapii. Wykazano, że podanie nanocząsteczek złota podczas naświetlania zwiększa efekty terapeutyczne w postaci obniżenia zdolności komórek do proliferacji. Co ważniejsze, silniejsze efekty uzyskano przy zastosowaniu promieniowania o energii mniejszej (rzędu kiloelektronowoltów zamiast megaelektronowoltów). Opisano również, że w radioterapii łączonej z inkubacją komórek z nanocząsteczkami złota opłaszczonymi glukozą zmniejsza się ich zdolność do proliferacji oraz wzrasta odsetek komórek wchodzących na szlak apoptozy. Dochodzi również do zmian w ekspresji białka p53 i zatrzymywanie się komórek w punkcie kontrolnym G2/M, w którym komórki są najbardziej wrażliwe na promieniowanie. Z tego względu modyfikacje NPs mogą stanowić ogromną szansę na opracowanie innowacyjnych i wysoce skutecznych leków przeciwnowotworowych.
Nanotechnology is a relatively young science focusing on the synthesis and studies of the objects with dimensions of the order of 10-9 meters. One approach to make the nanotechnology useful consists in application of nanoparticles in anticancer therapy. There are conducted studies aimed at the synthesis of totally new therapeutic compounds and increased efficiency of conventional therapies, among others - radiotherapy. It was demonstrated that administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) during the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation increases therapeutic effects by reducing their proliferation. Moreover, larger effects of radiation treatment combined with GNPs were obtained by using radiation energies in the range of keV instead of MeV. It was also described that irradiation combined with incubation of cells with gold nanoparticles coated with glucose decreases their ability to proliferate and increases the percentage of the cells entering on the apoptotic pathway. This leads also to changes in p53 protein expression and arrest of cell cycle in the G2/M phase, in which cells are most sensitive to radiation. Therefore, modifications of GNPs may help to develop innovative and highly effective anticancer drugs.
Physical description
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