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2016 | 65 | 2 | 177-186
Article title

Proces udomowienia (ulaboratoryjnienia) szczura wędrownego i jego implikacje dla badań naukowych

Title variants
Domestication (laboratization) of the norway rat and its implications for scientific research
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Powszechne wykorzystanie w badaniach eksperymentalnych szczurów wędrownych (Rattus norvegicus), a co za tym idzie, niemal 200 lat, czyli setki pokoleń hodowli w sztucznych warunkach, doprowadziły do uzyskania niespotykanych w naturze odmian tego zwierzęcia. Obecnie szczepy laboratoryjne używane są w różnego typu eksperymentach z dziedziny medycyny, biologii, psychologii. Rosnąca liczba badań wskazuje na szereg różnic anatomicznych, morfologicznych i behawioralnych pomiędzy szczurem dzikim a jego laboratoryjnym odpowiednikiem. Nasuwają się zatem pytania o adekwatność stosowania szczurów laboratoryjnych w niektórych eksperymentach, możliwość generalizacji płynących z nich wniosków oraz o zasadność traktowania tych zwierząt jako modelu naturalnych form zachowania.
Udomowienie, a właściwie ulaboratoryjnienie szczura można traktować jako specyficzny i bardzo dynamiczny proces ewolucyjny. Fakt, że jesteśmy jego świadkami, obfitość dostępnych danych empirycznych oraz ogromny wpływ na losy nauki czyni ów proces szczególnie interesującym.
The widespread use of Norway rats in experimental research, and therefore almost two hundred years and hundreds of generations of breeding in artificial conditions, have led to the forms (strains and breeds) of this species, that are unprecedented in nature. Currently, laboratory strains are used in various experiments i.a. in the field of medicine, biology, and psychology. A growing number of studies, however, points out a number of differences in anatomy, morphology and behavior between the wild rat and its laboratory counterpart. Thus, questions arise about (a) the relevance of the use of laboratory rats in some experiments, (b) the potentiality to generalize obtained results and (c) the justification for the use of these animals as models of natural forms of behavior.
Domestication (actually laboratization) of the rat can be regarded as a specific and highly dynamic evolutionary process. The fact that it can observed, abundance of available empirical data, and its huge impact on the science makes this process particularly interesting.
Physical description
  • Instytut Psychologii PAN, Jaracza 1, 00-378 Warszawa, Polska
  • Institute of Psychology PAS, Jaracza 1, 00-378 Warszawa, Poland
  • Instytut Psychologii PAN, Jaracza 1, 00-378 Warszawa, Polska
  • Institute of Psychology PAS, Jaracza 1, 00-378 Warszawa, Poland
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