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2014 | 63 | 3 | 429-441
Article title

Na początku były mszaki - czyli jak to było z wyjściem roślin na ląd

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EN
In the beginning there were bryophytes - or how it was with the colonization of land by plants
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
"Wyjście" rośliny na ląd to jedno z najważniejszych wydarzeń w historii życia na Ziemi, a jednocześnie jedna z największych zagadek w aspekcie ewolucyjnym i filogenetycznym. Obecnie nowe światło na pochodzenie i wczesną ewolucję roślin lądowych rzuciły badania molekularne, oparte na analizie sekwencji DNA. W niniejszym artykule podsumowano aktualną wiedzę na temat wczesnej filogenezy roślin lądowych. Przodkowie roślin lądowych wywodzą się z zielenic z klasy ramienicowych (Charophyceae), jednak trwają spory co do tego, które ramienicowe są najbliżej spokrewnione ze współczesnymi zarodkowymi (najczęściej wskazywane są rzędy ramienicowców Charales i tarczowłosowców Coleochaetales). Uważa się, że kolonizacja lądu została zapoczątkowana w ordowiku, około 475-450 mln lat temu - bo na tyle określa się wiek kryptospor, uważanych za pierwsze skamieniałe ślady występowania flory lądowej. Pierwsze rośliny lądowe prawdopodobnie przypominały współczesne wątrobowce, a mszaki są filogenetycznie najstarszymi żyjącymi roślinami lądowymi. Wzajemne zależności filogenetyczne w obrębie mszaków - między mchami, watrobowcami i glewikami - nie doczekały się końcowych rozstrzygnięć. Jako grupę siostrzaną w stosunku do roślin naczyniowych najczęściej wskazuje się glewiki, jednak niektóre analizy wskazują na mchy albo na klad tworzony przez mchy i glewiki. Wyjściu roślin na ląd towarzyszyły, oprócz wielu przystosowań anatomicznych i fizjologicznych, także zmiany w cyklu życiowym. Uważa się, że ważną rolę w kolonizacji lądu odegrały także endofityczne powiązania z grzybami.
EN
One of the most pivotal events in history of life on Earth was colonization of land by plants. It is also one of the mysteries of evolution and phylogenesis. Nowadays due to molecular studies, based on data from different gene sequences DNA, a new light was shed on the origin and early evolution of land plants. In this paper current knowledge of early phylogeny of land plants is summarized. Alleged ancestors of land plants are believed to have evolved from Charophytes, a group of green algae, but this issue is still controversial which of charophytes are the closest relatives of modern embryophytes (generally the Charales or Coleochaetales are mentioned). It is stated, that colonization of the land began in Ordovician times, ca. 475-450 milion years ago - such old are cryptospores, the earliest confirmed land plant fossils. The first land plants probably resembled the present-day liverworts, thus bryophytes phylogenetically are the oldest plants living on land. The phylogenic relationships among bryophytes - mosses, liverworts and hornworts - are not clearly explained. Hornworts are most frequently indicated as the sister group to tracheophytes, but some alternative analyses point at mosses as sister group to tracheophytes or a clade composed of mosses and hornworts. Colonization of land by plants was connected with changes in their life cycle (apart from a lot of anatomical and physiological adaptations). It is believed that endophytic fungal associations played a very important role in adaptations of plants to new environment.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
63
Issue
3
Pages
429-441
Physical description
Dates
published
2014
Contributors
  • Zakład Botaniki Systematycznej, Uniwersytet Śląski, Jagiellońska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Polska
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bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv63p429kz
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