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Journal
2014 | 63 | 3 | 315-323
Article title

Nadmierne gromadzenie żelaza w organizmie - realne zagrożenie dla zdrowia człowieka?

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Title variants
EN
Excessive iron accumulation - real threat to human health?
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Zdrowie człowieka zależy od właściwej zawartości żelaza w organizmie. Wobec braku mechanizmów regulujących wydalanie żelaza, pozwalających na dostosowanie wewnątrzustrojowych zasobów pierwiastka do zapotrzebowania na niego, nadmierne gromadzenie żelaza stać się może realnym zagrożeniem dla prawidłowego funkcjonowania wielu narządów. Patologiczne gromadzenie żelaza u człowieka może mieć charakter wrodzony, uwarunkowany genetycznie lub nabyty. Hemochromatoza dziedziczna to choroba o bogatej symptomatologii klinicznej, która rozwija się na skutek stopniowego odkładania żelaza w komórkach miąższowych wielu narządów (wątroby, trzustki, serca, gonad, przysadki mózgowej), co prowadzi do ich postępującego uszkodzenia. Podłożem genetycznym tej choroby są mutacje co najmniej pięciu różnych genów, kodujących białka i peptydy regulujące gospodarkę żelazem. Spośród nich, za ponad 80% przypadków dziedzicznej hemochromatozy w populacji kaukaskiej odpowiadają mutacje genu HFE. Nadmierne gromadzenie żelaza może mieć też charakter wtórny do innych chorób, wrodzonych lub nabytych. Rozwija się w przebiegu niedokrwistości, wymagających licznych przetoczeń krwi oraz może towarzyszyć niektórym przewlekłym chorobom wątroby, w tym przewlekłemu wirusowemu zapaleniu wątroby typu C, niealkoholowej chorobie stłuszczeniowej wątroby, alkoholowej chorobie wątroby i porfiriom wątrobowym. W badaniach, poświęconych analizie powiązań patologicznej akumulacji żelaza ze zjawiskami chorobowymi, szczególne miejsce zajmują doniesienia wskazujące na zależność mechanizmów karcynogenezy od zaburzeń regulacji homeostazy żelaza. Następstwem takich zaburzeń może być zwiększone ryzyko zachorowania na niektóre choroby nowotworowe.
EN
Human health depends on the proper content of iron in the body. In the absence of mechanisms regulating the excretion of iron, which allow the adjustment of endogenous resources to the demand for it, accumulation of iron can become a real threat to the proper functioning of many organs. In humans, i ron overload may have different origin: innate, genetically determined or acquired. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a disease with a rich clinical symptomatology, which develops due to the gradual accumulation of iron in the parenchymal cells of many organs (liver, pancreas, heart, gonads, pituitary gland), and leads to their progressive damage. Mutations of five different genes, encoding proteins and peptides regulating iron homeostasis, form the genetic basis of this disease. Among them, over 80% of cases of hereditary hemochromatosis in Caucasian populations are associated with the HFE gene mutations. Excessive iron accumulation may also develop secondary to other diseases, congenital or acquired. Iron overload is diagnosed in chronic anemia requiring multiple transfusions and may accompany some chronic liver diseases, including chronic viral hepatitis C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease and hepatic porphyrias. Many studies are devoted to the analysis of links between the pathological iron accumulation and morbidity. The association of carcinogenesis mechanisms with dysregulation of iron homeostasis seems to be especially interesting. Results of population studies bring some evidence for increased risk of development of certain cancers related to iron overload.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
63
Issue
3
Pages
315-323
Physical description
Dates
published
2014
Contributors
  • Klinika Chorób Zakaźnych, Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny, Smoluchowskiego 18, 80-214, Gdańsk, Polska
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Document Type
Publication order reference
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YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv63p315kz
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