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Journal
2014 | 63 | 3 | 299-308
Article title

Metabolizm żelaza - stan wiedzy 2014

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Title variants
EN
Iron metabolism - state of the art 2014
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Żelazo jest biometalem występującym w dwóch głównych stopniach utlenienia - Fe(II) i Fe(III). O wykorzystaniu żelaza przez organizmy żywe zadecydowała szeroka rozpiętość potencjału oksydoredukcyjnego tego metalu, możliwa dzięki zmiennym interakcjom z wiążącymi go ligandami oraz udział w reakcjach przeniesienia elektronu. Żelazo występuje w centrach aktywnych wielu enzymów katalizujących różnorodne reakcje, stanowiące podłoże kluczowych procesów metabolicznych takich jak fosforylacja oksydacyjna, synteza DNA, obróbka micro RNA, transport tlenu. Z drugiej strony, żelazo jest toksyczne poprzez udział w reakcji Fentona, w której powstaje rodnik wodorotlenkowy, utleniacz niszczący struktury komórkowe. Komórkowa homeostaza żelaza polega na dostarczeniu tego metalu do podstawowych procesów biochemicznych, w których uczestniczy oraz na ograniczeniu jego udziału w reakcji Fentona. Obrót żelaza w komórce pozostaje głównie pod kontrolą cytoplazmatycznych białek IRP1 i IRP2 wiążących się z RNA, które koordynują syntezę białek uczestniczących w komórkowym transporcie żelaza, jego magazynowaniu i metabolicznym użyciu. Ogólnoustrojowa równowaga żelaza opiera się w dużej mierze na osi regulatorowej pomiędzy hepcydyną, peptydem syntetyzowanym głównie w hepatocytach oraz ferroportyną, białkiem transportującym żelazo z komórek. Funkcjonowanie tej osi zapewnia prawidłową dystrybucję i obrót żelaza między absorpcyjnymi enterocytami, makrofagami układu siateczkowo-śródbłonkowego oraz prekursorami czerwonych krwinek. Artykuł podsumowuje najważniejsze odkrycia z ostatnich 15 lat, które okazały się kluczowe dla zrozumienia homeostazy żelaza.
EN
Iron is biometal, existing in two main oxidation states, i.e. Fe(II)/Fe(III). The extensive range of redox potential available to this metal by varying its interactions with coordinating ligands, as well as its capacity to participate in one-electron transfer reactions, are the reasons why iron is essential for almost all living organisms. Iron is found in the active sites of a large number of enzymes that catalyze diverse redox reactions underlying fundamental metabolic processes, including respiratory oxidation, DNA synthesis, microRNA processing and oxygen transport. On the other hand, iron is toxic due to its capacity to catalyze via Fenton reaction the production of hydroxyl radical, a highly destructive oxidant. Cellular iron homeostasis consists in providing iron for a variety of biochemical processes and in limiting iron availability for Fenton reaction. Cellular iron homeostasis is mainly controlled by the iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) - two cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins involved in the mechanisms that coordinate the synthesis of a number of key proteins responsible for cellular iron transport, storage and utilization. Systemic iron balance is largely based on a regulatory axis between the liver-derived peptide hepcidin and the iron exporter ferroportin proved to be fundamental for the coordination of iron fluctuations in the body and its distribution among the main sites of iron metabolism such as absorptive enterocytes, reticuloendothelial macrophages, hepatocytes and erythroid precursors of red blood cells. The article briefly resumes main discoveries within last 15 years, critical for the understanding iron homeostasis.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
63
Issue
3
Pages
299-308
Physical description
Dates
published
2014
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Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv63p299kz
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