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2014 | 63 | 2 | 201-209
Article title

Rytm theta we śnie i w czuwaniu

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EN
Theta rhythm in sleep and wakefulness
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Złożone funkcje poznawcze mózgu są bezpośrednio powiązane z koordynacją aktywności wielu neuronów znajdujących się w różnych częściach mózgu. Mechanizm tego procesu oparty jest na rytmach mózgowych (oscylacjach), które stanowią podstawę koordynacji aktywności poszczególnych zespołów komórek nerwowych. Jednym z najbardziej charakterystycznych i jednocześnie fascynujących rytmów mózgowych jest rytm theta. Charakterystyczną i intrygującą właściwością tego rytmu jest jego występowanie w dwóch zupełnie odmiennych formach aktywności organizmu - w czasie czuwania oraz podczas snu paradoksalnego (REM) zarówno u ludzi, jak i u zwierząt. Praca ta ma na celu przedstawienie wyników badań nad funkcją rytmu theta w trakcie snu i czuwania u ludzi i zwierząt. Rytm theta u ludzi, podobnie jak u zwierząt, jest dynamicznym stanem sieci neuronalnych formacji hipokampa i powiązanych z nią obszarów korowych. Badania nad rytmem theta u zwierząt wskazują na funkcjonalny związek pomiędzy synchronicznymi oscylacjami w paśmie theta a procesami orientacji i pamięci przestrzennej oraz organizacją i przebiegiem reakcji motorycznych i ruchowych związanych z eksploracją otoczenia. Badania przeprowadzone z udziałem ludzi wskazują na analogiczną funkcję tych oscylacji i wiążą ją głównie z procesami pamięciowymi i orientacyjnymi. Ostateczna odpowiedź na pytania dotyczące znaczenia rytmu theta i jego funkcji w czuwaniu jak i podczas snu jest nadal kwestią nierozstrzygniętą. Mimo prowadzonych od kilkudziesięciu lat prac badawczych nad tym fenomenem, w różnych układach doświadczalnych, z zastosowaniem bogatego spektrum technik rejestracji aktywności mózgu, zarówno u ludzi, jak i zwierząt, rytm theta nadal skrywa przed nami wiele tajemnic.
EN
Implementation of complex cognitive functions of the brain is directly associated with the process of coordination of activity of many neurons located in different brain areas. The mechanism of this process is based on the rhythms of the brain (oscillations), which form the basis of coordination and interlinking of the activity of individual nerve cell assemblies. One of the most characteristic, and at the same time fascinating, rhythms of the brain is theta rhythm. A distinctive and intriguing feature of this rhythm is its presence in two very different forms of activity - wakefulness and paradoxical sleep (REM) both in humans and animals. In this work an attempt is made to summarize the results of research on the function of theta activity associated with the wake/sleep activity in humans and animals. Theta rhythm in humans as well as in animals is a dynamic state of the neuronal theta rhythm assembles. Research on theta rhythm in animals suggests a functional relationship between synchronous oscillations in the theta band and the processes of spatial cognition and memory, as well as movement execution and motor reactions associated with the exploration of the environment. Studies conducted in humans suggest a similar function of these oscillations in learning as well as in spatial and episodic memory processes. The final answer to questions about the importance of theta rhythm in the animal and human behavior, and its function in wakefulness and during sleep has not been formulated. Despite decades of research on this phenomenon in different experimental setups, using the rich variety of bioelectrical brain activity registration techniques, theta rhythm still hides many secrets.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
63
Issue
2
Pages
201-209
Physical description
Dates
published
2014
Contributors
  • Katedra Fizjologii Zwierząt i Człowieka, Uniwersytet Gdański, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Polska
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bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv63p201kz
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