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2013 | 62 | 3 | 443-454
Article title

Tajemnice ewolucji alk.

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Title variants
EN
Secrets of the evolution of auks (alcidae).
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Alki (Alcidae) są pelagicznymi ptakami siewkowymi (Charadriiformes), które dzielone są na trzy podrodziny: alki właściwe (Alcinae), alki Lucasa (Mancallinae) i maskonury (Fraterculinae). Charakteryzuje je sposób zdobywania pokarmu podczas którego wykorzystują technikę tzw. "podwodnego lotu". Wymusiła ona szereg zmian w budowie ciała oraz miała wpływ na rozprzestrzenienie geograficzne tych ptaków. Alki występują jedynie na półkuli północnej, na terenach polarnych, subpolarnych bądź takich gdzie zimne wody głębinowe wypływają na powierzchnię. Podobieństwa w wyglądzie zewnętrznym oraz ekologii zbliżają je do pingwinów, dlatego też nazywane są potocznie pingwinami północy. Po między obiema grupami oprócz odmiennego zasięgu geograficznego występuję szereg różnic. Najważniejszą jest ta, że wszystkie z 24 żyjących dziś gatunków alk potrafią latać. Jak się jednak okazuje nie było tak zawsze gdyż ewolucja tych ptaków ukierunkowana jest ku udoskonaleniu techniki "podwodnego lotu". Efektem tego było powstanie nielotnych form w przeszłości. Pojawiły się one niezależnie w dwóch liniach ewolucyjnych atlantyckiej (rodzaj Pinguinus) oraz pacyficznej (podrodzina Mancallinae). Ostatnie badania wskazują na znaczną różnorodność tych ptaków w przeszłości geologicznej, szczególnie w miocenie oraz pliocenie. Niestety ich wczesna ewolucja, podobnie zresztą jak pozostałych ptaków siewkowych, jest słabo poznana i dopiero zaczynamy ją poznawać.
EN
Auks (Alcidae) arepelagic charadriiform birds (Charadriiformes), which are divided into three groups: auks (Alcinae), Lucas auks (Mancallinae) and puffins (Fraterculinae). They are characterized by their for aging technique, called "under water flight". It has forced a number of body changes and had an impact on the geographical spread of these birds. They are found only in the northern hemisphere, the polar, the subpolaror up welling areas, where cold deep-seawater rise to the surface. They show strong similarities in appearance and ecology with penguins, therefore they are often referred to as "penguins of the north" . However, between these birds apart from geographical range there are a numberof differences. The most important is that all among the 24 species of auks living today can fly. As it turns out, this was not always the case as evolution of these birds has been improving technology of "underwater flight". The result was the emergence of flight less forms in the past. They appeared independently in two evolutionary line ages in Atlantic (genera Pinguinus) and Pacific (subfamily Mancallinae). Recent studies show a significant diversity of auks in the past, particularly during Miocene and Pliocene. Unfortunately, their early evolution, as it is also the case for other charadriiform birds remains obscure.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
62
Issue
3
Pages
443-454
Physical description
Dates
published
2013
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Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv62p443kz
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