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2012 | 61 | 2 | 195-211
Article title

Wprowadzenie do neuroekologii - czyli czy znajomość układu nerwowego zwierząt pozwala zrozumieć ich relacje ze środowiskiem?

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EN
A short introduction to neuroecology
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PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Neuroekologia jest nauką na pograniczu neurobiologii i ekologii. Według twórcy terminu "neuroekologia" - D.F. Sherrego, celem tej dziedziny nauki jest zrozumienie jak dobór naturalny wpływa na zdolności poznawcze i ich neurobiologiczne podstawy. Choć neuroekologia jest stosunkowo młodą dziedziną nauki, która zaczęła rozwijać się w latach 80-tych dwudziestego wieku, to jej korzenie tak naprawdę sięgają czasów Darwina. W niniejszej pracy przeglądowej autorzy prezentują przykłady badań z zakresu neuroekologii. W szczególności omówione zostały zagadnienia związane z niezwykle istotnym znaczeniem percepcji węchowej w świecie zwierząt, jak i rolą dwóch struktur mózgu - podwzgórza i hipokampa, odgrywających ważne funkcje w regulacji podstawowych procesów życiowych, reakcjach na bodźce środowiskowe i uczeniu się. Najpierw przedstawione zostały przykłady uczenia się z wykorzystaniem zmysłu węchu. Następnie omówiona została rola podwzgórza i hipokampa w odpowiedzi na stres u zwierząt. Zaprezentowane zostały również przykłady badań wskazujące na rolę hipokampa w powstawaniu pamięci epizodycznej i pamięci przestrzennej. Przedstawiono także przykłady badań wskazujące na niezwykle istotną rolę nowych komórek nerwowych (powstających w procesie zwanym neurogenezą) w hipokampie u dorosłych zwierząt. Ponadto zaprezentowano przykłady strategii rozrodczych, zachowań związanych z chowaniem pokarmu i uczeniem się śpiewu u ptaków, czy zjawisk fizjologicznych pojawiających się w cyklach sezonowych, związanych ze zmianami w anatomii i funkcji hipokampa. Pokazano również przykłady badań nad wpływem pasożytów na funkcjonowanie układu nerwowego i behwior gospodarza. Na zakończenie zaproponowano kilka kierunków rozwoju badań neuroekologicznych. Autorzy mają nadzieję, że lektura tej pracy przeglądowej pozwoli Czytelnikom docenić osiągniecięcia tej rozwijającej się dziedziny naukowej, próbującej zgłębić tajniki relacji pomiędzy neurobiologią i ekologią.
EN
Neuroecology is the study of adaptive variation in cognition of the brain and bridges the gap between neuroscience and ecology. According to Sherry, who introduced the term "neuroecology" - the goal of this science is to understand how natural selection acts on cognition and its neural mechanisms. It is an emerging field of science originating in the 1980s, however, its roots can be traced back to Darwin's time. In this paper, several examples of studies in neuroecology are reviewed. The focus is on the issues related with extremely important role of the olfactory perception in animal world, and on the brain structures called the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. Firstly, the examples of olfactory learning are presented. Secondly, role of the hypothalamus and hippocampus in stress response in animals are discussed. Thirdly, the role of the hippocampus in memory formation (epidotic memory and spatial memory) is shown. Fourthly, a peculiar feature of mammalian adult hippocampus, its ability to generate new neurons, in a process called neurogenesis is emphasized. Thus, mating systems, food storing behavior, birds singing and seasonal changes in relation to anatomy and function of the hippocampus are discussed. Fifthly, the impact of parasites on host behavior and functions on the nervous system are presented. Finally, several directions, in which this emerging and exciting field might develop, are presented. We hope that by the end of this paper the reader will have started to appreciate achievements in the new and exciting field of neuroecology, which helps us to understand the relationships between neuroscience and ecology.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
61
Issue
2
Pages
195-211
Physical description
Dates
published
2012
Contributors
  • Zakład Histologii i Embriologii Zwierząt, Instytut Zoologii, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Wojska Polskiego 71c, 60-625 Poznań, Polska
  • Zakład Zoologii, Instytut Zoologii, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Wojska Polskiego 71c, 60-625 Poznań, Polska
  • Zakład Zoologii, Instytut Zoologii, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Wojska Polskiego 71c, 60-625 Poznań, Polska
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