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2011 | 60 | 3-4 | 219-225
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Erupcje wulkaniczne - formy i produkty

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Volcanic eruptions - forms and products
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Termin "wulkan" dotyczy tych nieciągłości w skorupie ziemskiej, w których doszło do erupcji, czyli wyrzucenia przez wulkan lawy, materiału piroklastycznego lub substancji lotnych (gazów wulkanicznych). Ze względu na charakter erupcji wyróżnia się wulkany efuzywne, eksplozywne i mieszane (stratowulkany). Charakter i rozmiar erupcji zależą od wielu czynników w tym min. od składu chemicznego magm, lepkości magm, zawartości gazów. Na Ziemi najczęściej spotykanym typem magmy są magmy krzemianowe, które po wydostaniu się na powierzchnię nazywamy lawami. Eksplozywność erupcji zależy w dużej mierze od zawartości wody w magmie (erupcje magmowe), jak również od reakcji gorącej, intrudującej magmy z wodami powierzchniowymi (freatyczne erupcje). Najczęstszymi produktami efuzywnych erupcji są potoki i kopuły lawowe, natomiast eksplozywnych - bomby, lapilli, popioły i pył.
A volcano is an opening in the Earth's surface where eruptions can take place and lava flows, pyroclastic material and volcanic gases escape from a magma reservoir. Volcanoes can be classified as effusive, explosive or composite (stratovolcanoes). The explosivity of eruption depends on the chemical composition, viscosity and volatile content of the magma. Most magmas are silicate melts; after degassing during eruption, they are termed lavas. The explosivity of an eruption depends mainly on the content of juvenile water in the magma (magmatic eruption), and on the extent of interaction of extruded magma with surface water (phreatic eruption). The products of effusive eruption are lava flows and lava domes; for explosive eruption they are mainly bombs, lapilli and ashes.
Physical description
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