Strategie leczenia dietetycznego otyłości - czy istnieje optymalna dieta?
Dietary strategies for the management of obesity - is there an optimal diet?
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Prevention and management of obesity has become a priority action for many institutions in the whole world and also one of the biggest challenges in the 21st century. Dietary pattern as well as physical activity has deteriorated, particular among Western populations. The consumption of industrially processed foods with high content of sugar and fat as well as the intake of beverages sweetened with sucrose or fructose has increased, but the consumption of fruit and vegetables has declined. Strategies for the management of obesity that leads to weight loss include three basic elements: increase in physical activity, consumption of a balanced diet as well as behavioral therapy. Low-calorie, balanced diets with adequate amount of vitamins and minerals are used in the management of obesity. Energy deficit can be induced via modification of the proportion of macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates). Therefore, it is possible to have different modifications that can yield several proportions of these macronutrients. In any case, diet has to be planned individually. Weight loss can be achieved by the use of high-carbohydrate diet (rich in dietary fiber), high-fat diet or high-protein diet, but with energy deficit. Low-calorie diets should be planned individually in such a way that long-term adherence to them would be easy to achieve.
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