Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2009 | 58 | 3-4 | 559-570
Article title

Pochodzenie i ewolucja człowieka

Title variants
Human origins and evolution
Languages of publication
Fossil and genetic evidence show that the history of bipedal primates (hominids) began approximately six million years ago. At that time in Africa lived an common ancestor, from which two evolutionary lineages arose and then diverged - one of these line­ages led to us - Homo sapiens, and the other - to our most recent living relative - the chimpanzee. In this paper a review of the hominid fossils is presented - paleontological proofs of evolution, which were lacking then to Darwin. Beginning with the earliest known hominids (including the Plio-Pleistocene australopithecines and Ardipithecus), I discuss the fossil record of the early representatives of the genus Homo, through archaic forms of humans (and their most recent representatives - the Neandertals), up to early anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Paleoanthropologists differ in their perception and interpretation of hominid history - the phylogenetic tree, and the number of hominid species that should be included there. Some scholars distinguish as many as 23 hominid taxa; others only 10. Although anthropologists generally agree that in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene many species of early hominids can be distinguished, the nomenclature for the genus Homo has been a matter of considerable controversy. This paper favours the view that beginning with the origin of Homo erectus, human evolution proceeded along a single lineage, and that Homo sapiens appeared not as a result of speciation (cladogenesis), but as a continuation of H. erectus populations.
Physical description
  • Instytut Antropologii, Wydział Biologii, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Polska
  • Bielicki T., 2000. Bardzo stronniczy pogląd na paleo­antropologię. Kosmos 49, 375-384.
  • Brain C. K., 1981. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Brunet M., Guy F., Pilbeam D., Taisso Mackaye H., Likius A. i współaut., 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa. Nature 418, 145-152.
  • Cann R. L., Stoneking M., Wilson A. C., 1987. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 325, 31-36.
  • Coon C. S., 1962. The origin of races. Knopf, New York.
  • Coppens Y., 1994. East Side Story: początki rodzaju ludzkiego. Świat Nauki 7, 62-69.
  • Dart R. A., 1925. Australopithecus africanus: The man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115, 195-199.
  • Darwin C., 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (pol. tłum. O powstawaniu gatunków drogą doboru naturalnego czyli o utrzymywaniu się doskonalszych ras w walce o byt).
  • Darwin C., 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (pol. tłum. O pochodzeniu człowieka, 1959, PWRiL, Warszawa).
  • Ereshefsky M. (red.), 1992. The Units of Evolution. Essays on the Nature of Species. Bradford Book, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Haeckel E., 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte (pol. tłum. Dzieje utworzenia przyrody, 1871, Lwów, nakładem Jana Czarneckiego).
  • Kaszycka K. A., 1996. Koncepcje gatunku: Przegląd i ocena stosowalności do badań materiałów kopalnych. Przegląd Antropologiczny 59, 19-29.
  • Kaszycka K. A., 2001. A new graphic reconstruction of the type specimen of Australopithecus robustus from Kromdraai, South Africa - TM 1517. S. Afr. J. Sci. 97, 404-409.
  • Kaszycka K. A., 2009. Dymorfizm płciowy południowoafrykańskich australopiteków. Wyd. Naukowe UAM, Poznań.
  • Leakey L. S. B., Tobias P. V., Napier J. R., 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202, 7-9.
  • Lockwood C. A., Menter C. g., Moggi-cecchi J., Keyser A. W., 2007. Extended male growth in a fossil hominin species. Science 318, 1443-1446.
  • Relethford J. H., 2001. Absence of regional affinities of Neandertal DNA with living humans does not reject multiregional evolution. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 115, 95-98.
  • Relethford J. H., 2008. Genetic evidence and the modern human origins debate. Heredity 100, 555-563.
  • Robinson J. T., 1954. The genera and species of the Australopithecinae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 12, 181-200.
  • Robinson J. T., 1964. Adaptive radiation in the Aus­tralopithecines and the origin of man. [W] African Ecology and Human Evolution. Howell F. C., Bourliere F. (red.). Methuen, London, 385-416.
  • Science, 2 October 2009, vol. 326,
  • Senut B., Pickford M., Gommery D., Mein P., Cheboi K., Coppens Y., 2001. First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C. R. Acad. Sci. 332, 137-144.
  • Serre D., Langaney A., Chech M., Teschler-nicola M., Paunovic M., Mennecier P., Hofreiter M., Possnert G., Pääbo S., 2004. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans. PLOS Biology 2, 313-317.
  • Shreeve J., 1998. Zagadka neandertalczyka. W poszukiwaniu rodowodu współczesnego człowieka. Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa.
  • Smith F. H., Janković I., Karavanić I., 2005. The assimilation model, modern human origins in Europe, and the extinction of the Neandertals. Qua­ternary Intern. 137, 7-19.
  • Stringer C. B., Andrews P., 1988. The origin of modern humans. Science 239, 1263-1268.
  • Stringer C. B., Mckie R., 1999. Afrykański exodus. Pochodzenie człowieka współczesnego. Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa.
  • Tattersall I., 2000. Nie zawsze byliśmy sami. Świat Nauki 4, 26-32.
  • Templeton A. R., 1993. The 'Eve' hypothesis: A genetic critique and reanalysis. Am. Anthropol. 95, 51-72.
  • Templeton A. R., 2005. Haplotype trees and modern human origins. Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 48, 33-59.
  • Templeton A. R., 2007. Genetics and recent human evolution. Evolution 61, 1507-1519.
  • Thorne A. G., Wolpoff M. H., 1992. Policentryczna ewolucja człowieka. Świat Nauki 6, 31-37.
  • Tobias P. V., 1991. The Skulls, Endocasts and Teeth of Homo habilis. Olduvai Gorge, Volume IV. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
  • Wiedenreich F., 1943. The skull of Sinanthropus pekinensis: A comparative study on a primitive hominid skull. Palaeontol. Sinica, New Series D, no. 10, Geological Survey of China.
  • White T. D., Suwa G., Asfaw B., 1996. Ardipithecus ramidus, a root species for Australopithecus. Proc. Colloq. XIII Intern. Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sci., Forli, Italy, 15-23.
  • Wilson A. c., Cann R. L., 1992. Afrykański rodowód ludzkości. Świat Nauki 6, 24-30.
  • Wolpoff M. H., 1999. Paleoanthropology (Wyd. II). McGraw-Hill, Boston.
  • Wolpoff M. H., Spuhler J. N., Smith F. H., Radovcic J., Pope G., Frayer D. W., Eckhart R., Clark G., 1988. Modern human origins. Science 241, 772-773.
  • Wolpoff M. H., Thorne A. G., Jelinek J., Yinyun Z., 1994a. The case for sinking Homo erectus. 100 years of Pithecanthropus is enough! Cour. Forsch.-Institut Senckenberg 171, 341-361.
  • Wolpoff M. H., Thorne A. G., Smith F. H., Frayer D. W., Pope G. G., 1994b. Multiregional evolution: A world-wide source for modern human populations. [W] Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans. Nitecki M. H., Nitecki D. V. (red.), Plenum Press, New York, 175-199.
  • Wolpoff M. H., Hawks J., Caspari R., 2000. Multiregional, not multiple origins. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112, 129-136.
  • Wolpoff M. H., Senut B., Pickford M., Hawks J., 2002. Sahelanthropus or 'Sahelpithecus'? Nature 419, 581-582.
  • Wood B. A., 1991. Hominid cranial remains from Koobi Fora. Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume IV. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Wood B. A., Collard M., 1999. The human genus. Science 284, 65-71.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.