Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2009 | 58 | 1-2 | 229-248
Article title

Symbiozy porostowe w świetle interakcji pomiędzy grzybami i fotobiontami

Title variants
Lichen symbioses in the light of relationships between mycobionts and fotobionts
Languages of publication
Nature of lichen symbioses involving fungi, green algae or/and cyanobacteria is varied. It has been worked out during the evolution lasting at least 600 million years and its beginnings had place in water environment. Ability of fungi to the lichenization was probably a current phenomenon, lost however by some of them after land colonization. The lichenforming fungi (ca 15 000 species) are contemporarily present in phylogenetically distant groups, for the most part within Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota. Common two-biont symbioses lead to classical lichens, defined as a stable, self-supporting association of a mycobiont and a photobiont in which the mycobiont plays the role of an exhabitant. In opposite situation, when the 'green' component is the exhabitant such endosymbiosis is named 'mycophycobiosis' and excluded from lichens. In some instances, there is no clear exhabitant function, but the role of fungus (e.g. Bryophagus, Collema, Lempholemma) in forming of thallus morphology remains unquestionable. Symbioses involving one mycobiont and two green components concern at least ca. 500 species of lichenized fungi. They appear in lichen thalli with external or internal cefalodia containing cyanobacteria, that fix only nitrogen. Carbon fixation and its transformation to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol and erytritol), available for fungus, becomes then the domain of the alga component. In few cases separate parts of lichen thalli containing cyano- and green algal fotobionts have various fototypes distinct in their morphology. Epibryophytic and epiphyllic lichens may represent also such associations in which the mycobiont use fotosynthetic products from two autotrophic sources. Three-biont long-term relationships between lichens and additional commensalic or pathogenic fungus are diverse and numerously represented (ca 1500-2000 species of lichenicolous fungi). The classical reflection of four-biont symbioses are associations of lichens and lichenicolous lichens (at least 100 species) displaying in distinct lichen thallus over the thallus of the lichen host. Such relationships have usually a commensalistic character. There are also trofic units between three mycobionts and one fotobiont when additional fungal pathogen infects another one, existing yet on two-biont lichen thallus. In many cases the real number of involving lichen bionts is larger than we may infer from morphology of a single structure. Many questions about this phenomenon are still unresolved, it is known, however, that similar morphotypes could be formed by one mycobiont and different species or strains of green components. One may speculate that at least sometimes, multi-bionts symbioses are present at some stages of lichen ontogeny. Another multi-bionts associations are known as 'mechanical hybrids' which may arise from different propagules growing together to form a single thallus.
Physical description
  • Katedra Agroekologii, Wydział Biologiczno-Rolniczy Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, Ćwiklińskiej 2, 35-601 Rzeszów, Polska
  • Altermann S., 2004. A Second Look at Letharia (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. Bull. California Lichen Soc. 11, 33-36.
  • Anthony P. A., Holtum J. A. M., Jackes B. R., 2002. Shade acclimation of rainforest leaves to colonization by lichens. Funct. Ecol. 16, 808-816.
  • Aptroot A., 2006. Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 2. Conspectus of Mycosphaerella. CBS Biodiversity series 5. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht.
  • Armaleo D., Clerc P., 1990. Lichen chimeras: DNA analysis suggests that one fungus forms two morphotypes. Exp. Mycol. 15, 1-10.
  • Beck A., Kasalicky T., Rambold G., 2002. Myco-photobiontal selection in a Mediterranean cryptogam community with Fulgensia fulgida. New Phytol. 153, 317-326.
  • Behera B. C., Makhija U., 2001. Effect of various culture conditions on growth and production of salazinic acid in Bulbothrix setschwanensis (lichenized ascomycetes) in vitro. Curr. Sci. 80, 1424-1427.
  • Bystrek J., 1997. Podstawy Lichenologii. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin.
  • Ceynowa-Giełdoń M., 2002. The genus Epigloea in Poland. Acta Mycol. 37, 3-11.
  • Chlebicki A., 2007. Nielichenizujące grzyby epi- i endolityczne (litobionty). Wiad. Bot. 51, 5-13.
  • Chlebicki A. & Olejniczak P., 2007. Symbiotic drift as a consequence of declining host populations. Acta Biol. Cracov. Bot. 49, 89-93.
  • Cykowska B., Flakus A., 2005. Epigloea medioincrassata (Epigloeaceae, non-lichenized Ascomycota), a species new to Poland. Polish Bot. J. 50, 233-234.
  • Diederich P., 1996. The lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61, 1-198.
  • Diederich P., 2003. New species and new records of American lichenicolous fungi. Herzogia 16, 41-90.
  • Döbbeler P., Poelt J., 1981. Arthopyrenia endobrya, spec. nov., eine hepaticole Flechte mit intrazellulärem Thallus aus Brasilien. Pl. Syst. Evol. 138, 275-281.
  • Etayo J., Diederich P., Sérusiaux E., 1995. Dictyonema interruptum, new for the Pyrenees. Graphis Scripta 7, 5-6.
  • Friedl T., 1987. Thallus development and phycobionts of the parasitic lichen Diploschistes muscorum. Lichenologist 19, 193-191.
  • Galloway D. J., 2001. Dendriscocaulon [W:] Flora of Australia 58A. McCarthy P. M. (red.). ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne, 38-39.
  • Galloway D. J., Kantvilas G., Elix J. A., 2001. Pseudocyphellaria [W:] Flora of Australia 58A. McCarthy P. M. (red.). ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne, 47-77.
  • Grube M., de los Ríos A., 2001. Observations on Biatoropsis usnearum, a lichenicolous heterobasidiomycete, and other gall-forming lichenicolous fungi, using different microscopical techniques. Mycol. Res. 105, 1116-1122.
  • Grummann V. J., 1968. Alte und neue Halbflechten. Ein neuer Flechtenparasit. Placynthium aspersellum neu für Mitteleuropa. Sydowia 22, 216-224.
  • Guzow-Krzemińska B., 2004. Różnorodność genetyczna fotobiontów porostowych pojedynczego stanowiska w oparciu o badania rejonu ITS rDNA [W:] Przyroda Polski w europejskim dziedzictwie dóbr natury. Jendrzejczak E. (red.). Streszczenia referatów i plakatów 53 Zjazdu PTB, Toruń-Bydgoszcz 6-11.09.2004, 125-126.
  • Guzow-Krzemińska B., Stocker-Wörgötter E., 2007. Hodowle in vitro mykobionta Protoparmeliopsis muralis i fotobiontów z rodzaju Trebouxia [W:] Botanika w Polsce - sukcesy, problemy, perspektywy. Kępczyńska E., Kępczyński J. (red.). Streszczenia referatów i plakatów 54 Zjazdu PTB, Szczecin 3-8.09.2007, 127.
  • Hafellner J., 2006. Lecideoid lecanoralean ascomycetes invading Rhizocarpon subgen. Rhizocarpon taxa, with special emphasis on cryptothalline species. Fritschiana (Graz) 52, 31-48.
  • Hager A., Brunauer G., Türk R., Stocker-Wörgötter E., 2008. Production and bioactivity of common lichen metabolites as exemplified by Heterodea muelleri (Hampe) Nyl. J. Chem. Ecol. 34, 113-120.
  • Halama P., van Haluwin C., 2004. Antifungal activity of lichen extracts and lichenic acids. BioControl 49, 95-107.
  • Hawksworth D. L., 1979. Blarneya, a lichenized hyphomycete from southern Ireland. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 79, 357-367.
  • Hawksworth D. L., 1982. Co-evolution and the detection of ancestry in lichens. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 52, 323-329.
  • Hawksworth D. L., 1988a. The variety of fungal-algal symbioses, their evolutionary significance, and the nature of lichens. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 96, 3-20.
  • Hawksworth D. L., 1988b. Naming mechanical and sexual hybrids in lichen-forming fungi. Int. Lichenol. Newsl. 21, 59-61.
  • Hawksworth D. L., 1992. Diploschistes Norman (1853). [W:] The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Purvis O. W., Coppins B. J., Hawksworth D. L., James P. W., Moore D. M. (red.). Natural History Museum Publications with the British Lichen Society, London, 101-114.
  • Hawksworth D. L., 2000. Freshwater and marine lichen-forming fungi. Fungal Divers. 5, 1-7.
  • Hawksworth D. L., Miądlikowska J., 1997. New species of lichenicolous fungi occurring on Peltigera in Ecuador and Europe. Mycol. Res. 101, 1127-1134.
  • Hibbett D. S., Binder M., Bischoff J. F., Blackwell M., Cannon P. F., Eriksson O., Huhndorf S., James T., Kirk P. M., Lücking R., Lumbsch T., Lutzoni F., Matheny P. B., McLaughlin D. J., Powell M. J., Redhead S., Schoch C. L., Spatafora J. W., Stalpers J. A., Vilgalys R., Aime M. C., Aptroot A., Bauer R., Begerow D., Benny G. L., Castlebury L. A., Crous P. W., Dai Y.- C., Gams W., Geiser D. M., Griffith G. W., Gueidan C., Hawksworth D. L., Hestmark G., Hosaka K., Humber R. A., Hyde K., Koljalg U., Kurtzman C. P., Larsson K.-H., Lichtward R., Longcore J., Miadlikowska J., Miller A., Monclavo J.-M., Mozley- Standridge S., Oberwinkler F., Parmasto E., Reeb V., Rogers J. D., Roux C., Ryvarden L., Sampaio J. P., Schuessler A., Sugiyama J., Thorn R. G., Tibell L., Untereiner W. A., Walker C., Wang Z., Weir A., Weiss M., White M., Winka K., Yao Y.-J., Zhang N., 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycol. Res. 111, 509-547.
  • Honegger R., 1986. Ultrastructural studies in lichens. II. Mycobiont and photobiont cell wall surface layers and adhering crystalline lichen products in four Parmeliaceae. New Phytol. 103, 797-808.
  • Honegger R., 1993. Tansley Review No. 60. Developmental biology of lichens. New Phytol. 125, 659-677.
  • Ihlen P. G., 1998. The lichenicolous fungi on species of the genera Baeomyces, Dibaeis, and Icmadophila in Norway. Lichenologist 30, 27-57.
  • Jahns H. M., 1987. New trends in developmental morphology of the thallus [W:] Progress and Problems in Lichenology in the Eighties. Peveling E. (red.). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 25, 17-33.
  • James P. W., Galloway D. J., 1992. Menegazzia. Flora of Australia 54. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 213-246.
  • James T. Y., Kauff F., Schoch C., Matheny B., Hofstetter V., Cox C. J., Celio G., Guiedan C., Fraker E., Miadlikowska J., Lumbsh T., Rauhut A., Reeb V., Arnold A., Amtoft A., Stajich J. E., Hosaka K., Sung G., Johnson D., O'Rourke B., Crockett M., Binder M., Curtis J. M., Slot J. C., Wang Z., Wilson A. W., Schueller A., Longcore J. E., O Donnell K., Mozley-Standridge S., Porter D., Letcher P. M., Powell M. J., Taylor J. W., White M. M., Griffith G. W., Davies D. R., Humber R. A., Morton J. B., Sugiyama J., Rossman A. Y., Rogers J. D., Pfister D. H., Hewitt D., Hansen K., Hambleton S., Shoemaker R. A., Kohlmeyer J., Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B., Spotts R. A., Serdani M., Crous P. W., Hughes K. W., Matsuura K., Langer E., Langer G., Untereiner W. A., Lücking R., Budel B., Geiser D. M., Aptroot D. M., Diederich P., Schmitt I., Schultz M., Yahr R., Hibbett D. S., Lutzoni F., Mclaughlin D. J., Spatafora J. W., Vilgalys R., 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443, 818-822.
  • Kluge M., 2002. A fungus eats a cyanobacterium: the story of the Geosiphon pyriformis endocyanosis. Biol. Environ.: Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 102B, 3-6.
  • Kocourková J., 2000. Lichenicolous fungi of the Czech Republic. (The first commented checklist). Sborn. Nár. Mus. v Praze, Řada B, Přír. Vědy 55, 59-169.
  • Kohlmeyer J., Kohlmeyer E., 1972. Is Ascophyllum nodosum lichenized? Botanica Marina 15, 109-112.
  • Kukwa M., Czarnota P., 2006. New or interesting records of lichenicolous fungi from Poland. Herzogia 19, 111-123.
  • Larson D. W., Carey C. K., 1986. Phenotypic variation with 'individual' lichen thalli. Amer. J. Bot. 73, 214-223.
  • Lawrey J. D., 1986. Biological role of lichen substances. Bryologist 89, 111-122.
  • Lawrey J. D., 2000. Chemical interactions between two lichendegrading fungi. J. Chem. Ecol. 26, 1821-1831.
  • Lawrey J. D., Diederich P., 2003. Lichenicolous fungi: Interactions, Evolution, and Biodiversity. Bryologist 106, 80-120.
  • Lawrey J. D., Torzilli A. P., Chandhoke V., 1999. Destruction of lichen chemical defences by a fungal pathogen. Amer. J. Bot. 86, 184-189.
  • Lumbsch H. T., Schmitt I., Palice Z., Wiklund E., Ekman S., Wedin M., 2004. Supraordinal phylogenetic relationships of Lecanoromycetes based on a Bayesian analysis of combined nuclear and mitochondrial sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 31, 822-832.
  • Lutzoni F., Pagel M., 1997. Accelerated evolution as a consequence of transitions to mutualizm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 11422-11427.
  • Lutzoni F., Pagel M., Reeb V., 2001. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature 411, 937-940.
  • Nowak J., 1998. Porosty (Lichenes). VI.2. Buelliaceae (Physciaceae sensu lato) [W:] Flora polska. Rośliny zarodnikowe Polski i ziem ościennych. Instytut Botaniki im. W. Szafera PAN, Kraków.
  • Nowak J., Tobolewski Z., 1975. Porosty polskie. Opisy i klucze do oznaczania porostów w Polsce dotychczas stwierdzonych lub prawdopodobnych. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa, Kraków.
  • Opanowicz M., 2003. Ekologiczna rola wtórnych metabolitów porostowych. Wiad. Bot. 46, 35-44.
  • Ott S., 1987. Sexual reproduction and developmental adaptations in Xanthoria parietina. Nord. J. Bot. 7, 219-228.
  • Ott S., Meier T., Jahns H. M., 1995. Development, regeneration and parasitic interactions between the lichens Fulgensia bracteata and Toninia caeruleonigricans. Canad. J. Bot. 73 (Suppl. 1), 595-602.
  • Piercey-Normore M. D., 2006. The lichen-forming ascomycete Evernia mesomorpha associates with multiple genotypes of Trebouxia jamesii. New Phytol. 169, 331-344.
  • Piercey-Normore M. D, De Priest P. T., 2001. Algal switching among lichen symbioses. Amer. J. Bot. 88, 1490-1498.
  • Pinokiyo A., Singh K. P., Singh J. S., 2006. Leaf-colonizing lichens: their diversity, ecology and future prospects. Curr. Sci. 90, 509-518.
  • Poelt J., 1985. Über auf Moosen parasitischen Flechten. Sydowia 38, 241-254.
  • Purvis O. W., 1992. Lobaria (Schreber) Hoffm. (1796) [W:] The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Purvis O. W., Coppins B. J., Hawksworth D. L., James P. W., Moore D. M. (red.). Natural History Museum Publications with The British Lichen Society, London, 361-363.
  • Purvis O. W., 1997. The species concept in lichens [W:] Species: The Units of Biodiversity. Claridge M. F., Dawah H. A., Wilson M. R. (red.). The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 54, Chapman & Hall, London, 109-134.
  • Purvis O. W., Coppins B. J., 1992. Dictyonema C. Ag. (1821) [W:] The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Purvis O. W., Coppins B. J., Hawksworth D. L., James P. W., Moore D. M. (red.). Natural History Museum Publications with The British Lichen Society, London, 234.
  • Rai A. N., Bergman B., 2002. Cyanolichens. Biol. Environ.: Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 102B, 19-22.
  • Raven J. A., 2002. The evolution of cyanobacterial symbioses. Biol. Environ.: Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 102B, 3-6.
  • Renner B., 1982. The presence or absent of secondary metabolities in cephalodia and their possible implications. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 52, 367-377.
  • Ríos de los A., Ascaso C., Grube M., 2002. An ultrastructural, anatomical and molecular study of the lichenicolous lichen Rimularia insularis. Mycol. Res. 106, 946-953.
  • Schuster G., Ott S., Jahns H. M., 1985. Artificial cultures of lichens in the natural environment. Lichenologist 17, 247-253.
  • Schüßler A., 2007. The Geosiphon pyriformis symbiosis - fungus 'eats' cyanobacterium. Wersja internetowa.
  • Sérusiaux E., Diederich P., Brand A. M., van den Boom P., 1999. New or interesting lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Belgium and Luxembourg. VIII. Lejeunia 162, 1-95.
  • Simpson A. G. B., Roger A. J., 2004. The real 'kingdoms' of eukaryotes. Current Biology 14, R693-R696.
  • Stark S., Kytöviita M. M., Neumann A. B., 2007. The phenolic compounds in Cladonia lichens are not antimicrobial in soils. Oecologia 152, 299-306.
  • Stocker-Wörgötter E., 2001. Experimental lichenology and microbiology of lichens: culture experiments, secondary chemistry of cultured mycobionts, resynthesis, and thallus morphogenesis. Bryologist 104, 576-581.
  • Stocker-Wörgötter E., Hager A., 2008. Appendix: Culture methods for lichens and lichen symbionts [W:] Lichen Biology. Second Edition. Nash III T. H. (red.). Cambridge University Press, New York, 353-363.
  • Tay T., Türk A. Ö., Yılmaz M., Türk H., Kıvanç M., 2004. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Ramalina farinacea and its (+)-usnic acid, norstictic acid, and protocetraric acid constituents. Z. Naturforsch. Sect. C 59, 384-388.
  • Tehler A., Wedin M., 2008. Systematics of lichenized fungi [W:] Lichen Biology. Second Edition. Nash III T. H. (red.). Cambridge University Press, New York, 336-352.
  • Toft C. A., 1991. An ecological perspective: the population and community consequences of parasitism [W:] Parasite-Host Associations. Toft C. A., Aeschlimann A., Bolis L. (red.). Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Tønsberg T., Holtan-Hartiwg J., 1983. Phycotype pairs in Nephroma, Peltigera and Lobaria in Norway. Nord. J. Bot. 3, 681-688.
  • Triebel D., 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35, 1-278.
  • Tschermak-Woess E., 1980. Chaenothecopsis consociata - kein parasitische-Pilze sonder lichenisiert mit Dictyochloropsis symbiontica spec. nova. Plant Systemat. Evol. 136, 287-306.
  • Vartia K. O., 1973. Antibiotics in lichens [W:] The Lichens. Ahmadijan V., Hale M. E. (red.). Academic Press, New York, 547-561.
  • Walsh D. A., Doolittle W. F., 2005. The real domains of life. Curr. Biol. 15, R237-R240.
  • Webber F. C., 1967. Observations on the structure, life history and biology of Mycosphaerella ascophylli. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 50, 583-601.
  • Whiton J. C., Lawrey J. D., 1982. Inhibition of Cladonia cristatella and Sordaria fimicola ascospore germination by lichen acids. Bryologist 85, 222-226.
  • Wirth V., 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • Yamamoto Y., Miura Y., Higuchi M., Kinoshita Y., Yoshimura I., 1993. Using lichen tissue cultures in modern biology. Bryologist 96, 384-393.
  • Yuan X., Xiao S., Taylor T. N., 2005. Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago. Science 308, 1017-1020.
  • Zocher B., Stocker-Wörgötter E., 2005. Secondary chemistry of lichen-forming ascomycetes: culture experiments with isolates of Xanthoparmelia species from Australia. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 41, 123-133.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.