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2007 | 56 | 3-4 | 349-359
Article title

Kompleksy synaptonemalne

Title variants
Synaptonemal complexes
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Genetic recombination is the main cause of changeability of different organisms. Synaptonemal complex (SC) is a protein structure which controls correct course of coniugation and the frequency of crossing over. It binds chromosomes into the biwalents. This structure consists of central element (CE) and two lateral elements (LE) related to the chromatin. There are observed ovale structures between lateral elements called recombination nodules (RNs). Recombination nodules are multienzimatic complexes, which catalize DSBs (Doubble Strand Breakes) and crossing over process. Synaptonemal complex is very important in meiosis pairing, but there are several taksons which do not form this structure, for example D. melanogaster male. Interesting modifications of synaptonemal comlexes are observed in heterohromosomes, which show slight homology, like the ZW pair in birds or some insects. A few organizms, such as eutherian mammals, form Danse Plate between heterochromosomes instead SC. There is observed interlocking during pairing sometimes, when chromosome or bivalent stuck between another pair of homologs. There are also observed in many organisms policomlexes consisting of synaptonemal's complex elements. In most events immunostaining metods are used to test function and structure of synaptonemal's complex elements.
Physical description
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