PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
Journal
2007 | 56 | 1-2 | 175-180
Article title

Matuzalemowy gatunek porostu wzorzec geograficzny Rhizocarpon geographicum (l.) dc. - jego właściwości i wykorzystanie

Authors
Content
Title variants
EN
Matuzalem genus of lichens - Rhizocarpon geographiucm (l.) dc. - its properties and application
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
EN
Lichens have been described as dual organisms because they are symbiotic associations between two (or sometimes more) entirely different types of the microorganism - a fungus (termed the mycobiont) and a green alga or a cyanobacterium (termed the photobiont). Rhizocarpon geographicum has a thallus crustose, composed of scattered areoles or areolate to rimose. Prothallus black, poorly to well developed. Areoles delimited by a black hypothallus. Areoles yellow-green, or more greenish or green-grey, round or ± angular, flat to convex 0.3-1.5 mm in diameter. Apothecia black to 1 mm in diameter, round or angular, matt, flat to weakly convex with distinct margin when young, becoming convex within distinct margin when old. Apothecia sitting between the areoles. Exciple pale brown to brownish red. Epihymenium brown or reddish brown, K± red, not containing crystals. Hymenium 100-140 µm high, hyaline or more rarely green. Paraphyses clavate with hyaline tips. Hypothecium dark brown, K-. Asci clavate, 8- spored, 100-150 x 20-30 µm. Ascospores hyaline to pale green-brown initially, becoming dark green to brown, submuriform or muriform, ellipsoid, 25-40 x 12-16 µm, halonate. Lichens with known, slow growth rates, like Rhizocarpon geographicum, have been used to estimate the dates of geological events such as the retreat of glaciers. Yellow map or world map of lichen is frequently used in lichenometry. Lichenometry is a method for age dating a landform based on the rate of lichen growth on the exposed rock surfaces. Lichenometry has been employed widely for dating the ages of glacial and periglacial features in alpine and desert regions. The method depends on the increase (growth) in diameter of lichen thalli through time. On siliceous (quartz-rich) rocks, Rhizocarpon geographicum is favored for lichenometry. These bright yellow-green colored lichens are easy to identify and measure in the field. Lichenometry was first developed by Roland Beschel in the 1950's, by measuring lichen diameters on gravestones of different ages. In an experiment led by the European Space Agency, two species of lichen - Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans - were sealed in a capsule and launched on a Russian Soyuz rocket on 31 may 2005. Once in Earth orbit, the lid of the container opened and the samples were exposed to the space environment for nearly 15 days before the lid resealed and the capsule returned to Earth. The lichens were subjected to the vacuum of space and to temperatures ranging from -20°C on the night side of the Earth, to 20°C on the sunlit side. They were also exposed to glaring ultraviolet radiation of the Sun. In space, the lichens turned dormant and did not metabolize, but once returned to Earth, they resumed to their normal activity and their DNA appeared not to have been damaged.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
56
Issue
1-2
Pages
175-180
Physical description
Dates
published
2007
References
  • Bajgier M., 1992. Zastosowanie lichenometrii w datowaniu osuwisk w Beskidzie Śląskim. Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 62, 239-346.
  • Bajgier-kowalska M., 2001. Lichenometryczne datowanie pokryw koluwialnych na stokach Lipowskiej - Rodanki w Beskidzie Żywieckim [w:] Sympozjum - Pokrywy stokowe jako zapis zmian klimatycznych w późnym vistulianie i holocenie. Sosnowiec, 5-9.
  • Bajgier-kowalska M., 2002. Zastosowanie lichenometrii w datowaniu stoków osuwiskowo-obrywowych w Beskidzie Żywieckim (Karpaty fliszowe). Czas Geogr. 73, 215-230.
  • Beschel R. E., 1950. Flechten als Altersmasstab prezenter Moränen, zeitschrift für Gletscherkude und Glazialgeologie 1, 152-161.
  • Bystrek J., 1997. Podstawy lichenologii. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-skłodowskiej, Lublin.
  • Culberson C. F., 1969. Chemical and Botanical Guide to Lichen Products. the University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Fałtynowicz W., 1995. Wykorzystanie porostów do oceny zanieczyszczenia powietrza. Zasady, Metody, Klucze Do Oznaczania Wybranych Gatunków. Centrum Edukacji Ekologicznej Wsi, Krosno.
  • Fałtynowicz W., 2003. The lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi of Poland. An Annotated Checklist. Krytyczna Lista Porostów i Grzybów Naporostowych Polski. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.
  • Gehrmann C., Krumbein W. E., Petersen K., 1988. Lichen weathering activities on mineral and rock surfaces. Studia Geobotanica 8, 33-45.
  • Harańczyk H., 2003. Rozważania o dwói z fizyki, czyli jak zamarza woda. Foton 83, Zima, 23-29.
  • Harańczyk H., 2006. Wybrane zastosowania NMR w biofizyce - wykład. Mikrosympozjum Nmr w Instytucie Chemii Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku, 20 Października 2006.
  • Innes J. L., 1990. The use of lichens in dating. [W:] crc handbook of Lichenology, T. Iii, 75-91.
  • Kotarba A., 1988. Lichenometria i jej zastosowanie w badaniach geomorfologicznych w Tatrach. Wszechświat 1, 13-15.
  • Kotarba A., 1989. On the age of debris flows in the Tatra Mountains. Studia Geomorph. Carp.-balc. 23, 139-152.
  • Lipnicki L., Wójciak H., 1995. Porosty. Klucz-atlas Do Oznaczania Najpospolitszych Gatunków. Wsip, Warszawa.
  • Nowak J., Tobolewski Z., 1975. Porosty polskie. Pwn, Warszawa-kraków.
  • Olech M., 2004. Lichens of King George Island, Antarctica. the Institute of Botany of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków.
  • Podbielkowski Z., Podbielkowska M., 1992. Przystosowania roślin do środowiska. Wsip, Warszawa.
  • Rundel P. W., 1978. The ecological role of secondary lichen substances. Bioch. Syst. Ecol. 6, 157-170.
  • Wirth V., 1995. Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs. Bd. 1-2, Ii Aufl. Stuttgart, Verl. Eugen Ulmer.
  • Young K., 2005. Hardy lichen shown to survive in space. New Scientist. Com. News Service.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv56p175kz
Identifiers
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.