PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
Journal
2006 | 55 | 1 | 45-52
Article title

Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Bogactwo gatunkowe i liczebność fauny wielkiego miasta - przykład Warszawy
EN
Species richness and abundance of the fauna of a big city - case of Warsaw
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
EN
A full (i.e. close to completion) list of fauna of any city, nowhere was assessed, mainly because taxonomic and ecological diversity of invertebrates is beyond practical possibilities to have cooperation in the given area of all specialists, which would be necessary for such a study. The most comprehensive studies of this kind, in comparison to fauna of the region, were carried out in Warsaw (Poland), and more recently in Łódź (Central Poland). Within administration area of Warsaw (492 km2), about 3,800 species of terrestrial invertebrates from above 90 families or orders were recorded together with about 320 vertebrate species. The complete list of the animal world of Warsaw is estimated to be about 6-7 thousand species. The species richness of the fauna in large (European) city is likely to comprise 5-10 thousand of species, but the present knowledge about urban invertebrate wildlife does not allow even a basic assessment to be made. The vertebrate fauna is known much better, its species richness is similar in European cities - about 300-400 species. Total number of animal species recorded in Warsaw (ca. 4,100) is about 12% of that indicated from the whole country (Poland). If only vertebrates (a relatively well studied group) are compared - the proportion is 48-50%. In almost all of taxa studied, the species richness decreased with increasing urbanization gradient. The number of invertebrate species recorded in the green suburbs of Warsaw was 57% of that recorded in comparable studies in the region, in urban parks - 31%, and in small green patches in the city centre - 14%. As concerns breeding birds - in Warsaw as a whole about 65% of the species were found in comparison to the region whilst in the inner city - about 37%. Studies on abundance of urban fauna in Warsaw indicated that 1 m2 of soil layer in city lawns contains on an average several tens of thousands of invertebrate individuals whilst 1 m2 of ground surface - several hundred of them. 1 m3 of the canopy of the park trees contains 2-3 thousand individuals with more than one hundred of them per sample of 100 leafs. The total population of the breeding avifauna of Warsaw was estimated to be 150-350 thousand pairs (breeding territories) i.e. ca. 300-700 pairs per km2. The average density of the bird population in the highly urbanized areas of inner Warsaw was 830-1590 pairs per 1 km2 in the breeding season, and 2.5-4.5 thousand individuals per 1 km2 in winter. This is similar to values reported from other European cities.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
55
Issue
1
Pages
45-52
Physical description
Dates
published
2006
Contributors
author
  • Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa, Polska
References
  • Adams L.W., Van Druff L.W., Luniak M., 2005. Managing urban habitats and wildlife. [W:] Techniques for wildlife investigations and management. 6th edition. Braun C. E. (red.). The Wildlife Society, Bethseda, Maryland, USA, 714-739.
  • Bogdanowicz W., Chudzicka E., Pilipiuk I., Skibińska E. (red.), 2004. Fauna Polski - charakterystyka i wykaz gatunków. Tom I. MiIZ PAN, Warszawa.
  • Bezzel E., 1982. Vögel in der Kulturlanschaft. Eugen Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart, 173-255.
  • Chudzicka E., Skibińska E., 2003. Różnorodność gatunkowa - zwierzęta. [W:] Różnorodność biologiczna Polski. Andrzejewski R., Weigle A. (red.). Narodowy Fundusz Ochrony Środowiska, Warszawa, 93-138.
  • Chojnacki J., Sudnik-Wojcikowska B., 1994. Effect of urbanization on the plant cover of Warsaw. Memorabilia zool. 49, 115-127.
  • Chudzicka E., Skibińska E., 1994. An evaluation of an urban environment on the basis of faunistic data. Memorabilia zool. 49, 176-185.
  • Cignini B., Zapparoli M. (red.), 1996. Atlante degli ucelli nidificanti a Roma. Fratelli Palombi Editori, Roma.
  • Czechowski W., 1990. Bibliography of the publications of the Institute of Zoology, PAS, in Warsaw on urban ecology (until 1988). [W:] Urban ecology studies in Central and Eastern Europe. Luniak M. (red.). Ossolineum, Wrocław, 206-235.
  • Czechowski W., Mikolajczyk W., 1981. Methods for the study of urban fauna. [W:] Species composition and origin of the fauna of Warsaw. Part I. Czechowski W., Pisarski B. (red.). Memorabilia zool. 34, 49-58.
  • Czechowski W., Pisarski B. (red.), 1981. Species composition and origin of the fauna of Warsaw. Part 1. Memorabilia zool. 34.
  • Czechowski W., Pisarski B. (red.), 1986. Structure of the fauna of Warsaw; effects of the urban pressure on animal communities. Cz. 1. Memorabilia zool. 41.
  • Czechowski W., Pisarski B. (red.), 1987. Structure of the fauna of Warsaw - effects of the urban pressure on animal communities. Cz. 2. Memorabilia zool. 42.
  • Czechowski W., Garbarczyk H., Pisarski B., Sawoniewicz J. (red.), 1982a. Species composition and origin of the fauna of Warsaw. Cz. 2. Memorabilia zool. 35.
  • Czechowski W., Garbarczyk H., Pisarski B., Sawoniewicz J. (red.), 1982b. Species composition and origin of the fauna of Warsaw. Cz. 3. Memorabilia zool. 36.
  • Fuchs R., Skopek J., Formanek J., Exnerova A., 2002. Atlas hnizdniho rozsireni ptaku Prahy. Consult Praha, Praha.
  • Ssaków Hewlett J. (red.)., 2002. The breeding birds of the London area. London Natural History Soc.
  • Jędrzejewska B., Wójcik J.M., 2004. Eseje o ssakach Puszczy Białowieskiej. Zakład Badania PAN, Białowieża.
  • Jokimaki J., Suhonen J., 1993. Effects of urbanization on the breeding birds richness in Finnland: a biogeographical comparison. Ornis Fennica 70, 71-77.
  • Kelcey J. G., Reinwald G., (red.), 2005. Birds in European cities. Ginster Verlag, St. Katharinen.
  • Klausnitzer, B., 1988. Verstaedterung von Tieren. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg.
  • Klausnitzer, B., 1993. Oekologie der Grossstadtfauna. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • Lesiński G., Fuszara E., 2001. Charakterystyka miejskiego zgrupowania nietoperzy Warszawy. Nietoperze 2, 3-17.
  • Luniak M., Borzęcka I., Chudzicka E., Goszczyński J., Mazgajska J., Mazgajski T., Nowicki W., Pilipiuk I., Romanowski J., Skibińska E., Wiśniewolski W., 2000. Fauna. [W:] Wisła w Warszawie. Lickiewicz J., Pawlak J., Pietrusiewicz W. (red.). Wyd. Elipsa, Warszawa.
  • Luniak M. 1974. O ptakach Warszawy. Nasza Księgarnia, Warszawa.
  • Luniak M., 1981. The birds of the park habitats in Warsaw. Acta ornithol. 18, 335-370.
  • Luniak M., 1994. The development of bird communities in new housing estates in Warsaw. Memorabilia zool. 49, 257-267.
  • Luniak M., 2004. Synurbization - adaptation of animal wildlife to urban development. [W:] Shaw W. W, Harris K. L., Van Druff L. (red.). Urban wildlife conservation. Proc. of the 4th Intern. Symp., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, 50-55 .
  • Luniak, M., Nowicki W., 1990. Występowanie ssaków w Warszawie. [W:] Funkcjonowanie układów ekologicznych w warunkach miasta. Zimny H. (red.). Wyd. SGGW-AR, No 58, Warszawa.
  • Luniak M., Pisarski B., 1994. State of research into fauna of Warsaw (up to 1990). Memorabilia zool. 49, 155-165.
  • Luniak M., Kalbarczyk W., Pawłowski W., 1964. Ptaki Warszawy. Acta Ornithol. 8, 175-285.
  • Luniak M., Kozłowski P., Nowicki W., Plit J., 2001. Ptaki Warszawy 1962-2000. IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa.
  • Markowski J., Wojciechowski Z., Kowalczyk J. K., Tranda E., Śliwiński Z., Soszyński B., 1998. Fauna Łodzi. Fundacja 'Człowiek i Środowisko', Łódź.
  • Markowski J., Kowalczyk J. K., Janiszewski T., Wojciechowski Z., Szczepko K., Domański J., 2004. Fauna Łodzi - stan poznania, zmiany,gatunki chronione i zagrożone. [W:] Fauna miast Europy Środkowej 21. wieku. Indykiewicz P., Barczak T. (red.). P.M. Logo, Bydgoszcz, 19-36.
  • Marzluff J. M., Bowman R., Donelly R., 2001. Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusets.
  • Mazgajska J., 1998. Inwentaryzacja batrachofauny Warszawy w latach 1992-1994. [W:] Fauna miast. Barczak T., Indykiewicz P. (red.). Wyd. ATR Bydgoszcz, 227-236.
  • Mitschke A., Baumung S., 2001. Brutvogel-Atlas Hamburg. Hamburger Avifaun. Beitr. 31, sonderheft.
  • Montier D., 1977. Atlas of breeding birds of the London area. B. T. Batsford Ltd., London.
  • Nourteva P., 1971. The synanthropy of birds as an expression of the ecological cycle disorder caused by urbanization. Ann. zool. fenn. 8, 547-553.
  • Nowicki W., 2001. Ptaki śródmieścia Warszawy. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa.
  • Otto W., Witt K., 2002. Verbreitung und Bestand Berliner Brutvögel. Berliner Ornithol. Bericht. 12, Sondeheft.
  • Pisarski B., 1982. La faune de la Varsovie - sa composition et son origine. [W:] Animals in urban environment. Luniak M., Pisarski B. (red.). Ossolineum, Wrocław, 103-113.
  • Pisarski B., 1990. The invertebrate fauna of urbanized areas of Warsaw. [W:] Urban ecological studies in Central and Eastern Europe. Luniak M. (red.). Ossolineum, Wrocław, 98-111.
  • Plant C., 1987. The butterflies of the London area. London Nat. Hist. Soc., London.
  • Plant C., 1993. Larger moths of the London area. London Nat. Hist. Soc., London.
  • Rabosee D., 1995. Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs de Bruxelles 1989-1991. Soc. d'Etudes Ornithol. Aves, Liege.
  • Risin L. P., (red.), 1998. Priroda Moskvi. Bioinformservis, Moskva.
  • Sasvari L., 1990. Structure of bird communities in urban and suburban habitats. [W:] Urban ecological studies in Central and Eastern Europe. Luniak M. (red.). Ossolineum, Wrocław, 155-166.
  • Spitzenberger F., 1990. Fledermaeuse Wiens. J & V Edition Wien, Wien.
  • Sterzyńska M., 1990. Communities of Collembola in natural and transformed soils of the linden-oak-hornbeam sites of the Mazovian Lowland. Fragm. faun. 34, 165-262.
  • Sukopp H., 1990. Stadtoekologie - das Beispiel Berlin. D. Reimer Verlag, Berlin.
  • Sukopp H., 1998. Urban ecology - scientific and practical aspects. [W:] Urban ecology. Breuste J., Feldmann H., Uhlmann O. (red.). Springer Verlag, Berlin, 3-16.
  • Tomiałojć L., 1998. Breeding densities in some urban versus non-urban habitats; the Dijon case. Acta ornithol. 33, 159-171.
  • Tomiałojć L., Profus P., 1977. Comparative analysis of breeding bird communities in two parks of Wrocław and in adjacent Querco-Carpinetum forest. Acta ornithol. 26, 117-177.
  • Whiteley D., 1994. The state of knowledge of the invertebrates in urban areas in Britain with examples taken from the city of Sheffield. Memorabilia zool. 49, 207-220.
  • Winiarska G., 2002. Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) in urban habitats: the moths of Warsaw. I. Noctuidae, Pantheidae, Nolidae. Fragm. faun. 45, 131-145.
  • Winiarska G., 2003. Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) in urban habitats: II The butterflies (Rhopalocera) of Warsaw. Fragm. faun. 46, 69-91.
  • Winiarska G., 2004. Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) in urban habitats: the moths of Warsaw. III. Noctuidea (second part): Notodontidae, Arctidae, Lymantridae. Fragm. faun. 47, 121-126.
  • Witt K. (red.), 1984. Brutvogelatlas Berlin (West). Ornithol. Ber. f. Berlin (West) 9, Sonderheft.
  • Zapparoli M. (red.), 1997. Gli insetti di Roma. Fratelli Palombi Editori, Roma.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv55p45kz
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.