Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2005 | 54 | 1 | 5-20
Article title

Pasożytnictwo, pasożyty i żywiciele

Title variants
Parasitism, parasites and their hosts
Languages of publication
Summary The article presents the main information on on parasites the definition of parasitism developed the nature of parasitism and place of parasites from a very simple one, formulated by Leuckart at among living creatures. In the course of studies the end of XIX century, emphasizing that parasites gain their nourishment without killing the host, up to very complex ones, which include such elements, as ecological, metabolic, and physiological relations between the parasite and its host, expressed in the host-parasite interdependence. Currently about 30 - 50% (according to different calculations) of protozoans and animals lead a parasitic mode of life. They originate from almost all groups of living creatures, but among animals the parasitic species are most abundant in invertebrates. They may belong to all parasitologic taxa at various levels (from type to genus), or are dispersed within different taxa together with free-living organisms. The hosts of parasites originate usually from the taxons of a higer systematic level. In consequence, the richest parasite fauna is recorded in vertebrates, especially in birds. According to their role in the life cycle of parasites, they are called intermediate (hosting larvae or asexual generations of Protozoa and Metazoa) or final (definitive) hosts (harbouring adult forms of Metazoa or sexual generations of Protozoa). Any host-parasite relationship can be established when some ecological, metabolic and immunological factors allow the infective stages of a parasite to colonize the potential host. These reciprocal adaptations were elaborated during a long natural selection and continual 'armaments race' between hosts and their parasites. This is the reason that in evolutionary 'young' host-parasite relationship (as for example in the case of human parasites), the parasites are often pathogenic for their hosts. As in some unfavourable conditions the host kills their parasites, or the parasites kill their host, either partner plays a great role in maintainig the demographic equilibrium between the components of biocenosis.
Physical description
  • Instytut Parazytologii im. W. Stefańskiego PAN, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa, Polska
  • BAER J. G., 1952. Ecology of animal parasites. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana
  • BARNES R. S. K., CALLOW P. J., OLIVE P. J. W., 1993. The invertebrates; a new synthesis. Second Edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • BENEDEN P. J. van. 1869. Le commensalismme dans le règne animal. Bulletin de l'Academie r. de Belgique, Classe de Sciences 28, 621-648.
  • BIÉMONT C., BROOKFIELD J. F. Y., 1996. Les éléments tranposables du gènome, facteurs de variabilité génétique. La Recherche 287, 50-55.
  • BRAUN M., 1891. Helmintologische Mittellungen. Centralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infectionkrankenheiten und Hygiene 9, 52-56.
  • COMBES C., 1999. Ekologia i ewolucja pasożytnictwa; długotrwałe wzajemne oddziaływania. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.
  • CROFTON H. D., 1971. A quantitave approach to parasitism. Parasitology 62, 179-193.
  • DAWKINS R., 1982. The extended Phenotype. Oxford University Press.
  • DOGIEL V. A., 1947. Kurs obshchej parazitologii. UCHPEDGIZ, Leningrad.
  • EICHLER W., 1970. Evolutionische Aspekte der Wirt--Parasit Verhältnisses. Angewandte Parasitol. 11, 134-140.
  • FUNCH P., KRISTENSEN R. M., 1995. Cycliophora is a new phyllum with affinities to Entoprocta and Ectoprocta. Nature 378, 711-714.
  • HAUSMANN K., HŰLSMANN N., 1996. Protozoology. Second Edition. Thieme Medical Publisher, New York.
  • JURA Cz., 1999. Podział systematyczny organizmów. [W]: Encyklopedia Biologiczna. OTAŁĘGA Z. (red.). T. VIII, 282-297.
  • KAZUBSKI S. L., 2000. Pierwotniaki pasożytnicze. Kosmos 49, 627-657.
  • KÜCHENMEISTER G. F. H., 1855. Die in und an dem Kőrpen des lebendes Menschen vorkommenen Parasiten. 1 Abt., Die tierischen Parasiten. Leipzig
  • LEUCKART R., 1852. Parasitismus und Parasiten. Archiv Physiologischen Heilkunde 11, 199-259, 379-437.
  • LINCICOME D. R., 1971. The goodness of parasitism: A new hypothesis. [W:] Aspects of the biology of symbiosis. CHENG T. C. (red.). University Park Press, Baltimore.
  • MARGULIS L., 1981. Symbiosis in the cell evolution. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.
  • MARGULIS L., 2000. Symbiotyczna planeta. Wydawnictwo CiS. MAY R. M., 1988. How many species are there on Earth? Science 241, 1441-1449.
  • MEEûS T. de, RENAUD F., 2002. Parasites within the new phylogeny of eukaryotes. Trends Parasitol. 18, 247-251.
  • MICHAJŁOW W., 1960. Pasożytnictwo a ewolucja. PWN, Warszawa.
  • NIEWIADOMSKA K., POJMAŃSKA T., MACHNICKA B., CZUBAJ A., 2001. Zarys parazytologii ogólnej. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
  • ODENING C., 1974. Parasitismus. Gruntfragen und Grundbegriffe. Akademie Verlag, Berlin.
  • OWCZARENKO M., WITA I., 2002. Meandry systematyki mikrosporydiów. Wiadomości Parazytol. 48, 319-331.
  • ROGERS W. P., 1962. The nature of parasitism. The relations of some metazoan parasites to their hosts. New York and London, Academic Press.
  • SMYTH J. D., 1976. Introduction to animal parasitology. Hodder and Stoughton, London, Sydney, Auckland, Toronto.
  • SPRENT F. A., 1963. Parasitism. An introduction to parasitology and immunology for students of biology, veterinary science and medicine. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia.
  • TOFT C. A., 1991. An ecological perspective: the population and community consequences of parasitism. [W:] Parasite-host associations: Coexistence or coenflict? TOFT C. A., AESCHLIMAN A., BOLIS L. (red.), 1-12.
  • VAN VALEN L., 1973. A new evolutionary low. Evolution theory 1, 1-30.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.