Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2004 | 53 | 3-4 | 355-372
Article title

Dimer αγ białka G - cząsteczka sygnałowa

Title variants
Dimer βγ of G protein - signaling molecule
Languages of publication
Summary The extracellular signals received by receptors with seven membrane-spanning regions that activate the G proteins, are routed to several distinct intracellular pathways. The G proteins consist of two functional units, Gα subunit, that binds guanine nucleotides and Gβγ dimer that functions as a single unit. The regulation of signal transduction by the Gβγ complex at different protein interfaces: subunit - subunit, receptor - G protein, and Gβγ - effector, are reviewed. Gβγ dimer regulates over twelve cellular effectors including phospholipase-β, adenyl cyclases, ion channels and G-protein coupled receptor kinases, which control a broad range of cellular processes.
Physical description
  • Zakład Biologii Komórki Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • Zakład Biologii Komórki Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • Zakład Biologii Komórki Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. Nenckiego PAN, Pasteura 3, 02-093 Warszawa, Polska
  • AKGOZ M., KALYANARAMAN V., GAUTAM N., 2004. Receptormediated reversible translocation of the G protein betagamma complex from the plasma membrane to the Golgi complex. J. Biol. Chem. (w druku).
  • ALBSOUL-YOUNES A. M., STERNWEIS P. M., ZHAO P., NAKATA H., NAKAJIMA S., NAKAJIMA Y., KOZASA T., 2001. Interaction sites of the G protein beta subunit with brain G protein-coupled inward rectifier K+ channel. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 12712-12717.
  • ARAI H., TSOU C. L., CHARO I. F., 1997. Chemotaxis in a lymphocyte cell line transfectedwith C-C chemokine receptor 2B: evidence that directed migration is mediated by betagamma dimers released by activation of Galphai-coupled receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 14495-14499.
  • ASANO T., MORISHITA R., OHASHI K., NAGAHAMA M., MIYAKE T., KATO K. 1995. Localization of various forms of the gamma subunit of G protein in neural and nonneural tissues. J. Neurochem. 64, 1267-1273.
  • BLUMER K. J, THORNER J. 1990. Beta and gamma subunits of a yeast guanine nucleotide-binding protein are not essential for membrane association of the alpha subunit but are required for receptor coupling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 4363-4367.
  • BIRNBAUMER L., 1990. G proteins in signal transduction. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol Toxicol. 30, 675-705.
  • BOEKHOFF I., TOUHARA K., DANNER S., INGLESE J., LOHSE M. J., BREER H., LEFKOWITZ R. J., 1997. Phosducin, potential role in modulation of olfactory signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 4606-4612.
  • BUCK E., LI J., CHEN Y.,WENG G., SCARLATA S., IYENGAR R., 1999. Resolution of a signal transfer region from a general binding domain in Gbeta for stimulation of phospholipase C-beta2. Science 283, 1332-1335.
  • BUCK E., SCARLATA S., IYENGAR R., 2002. Role of dynamic interactions in effective signal transfer for Gbeta stimulation of phospholipase C-beta2. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 49707-49715.
  • BÜNEMANN M., HOSEY M. M., 1999. G-protein coupled receptor kinases as modulators of G-protein signalling. J. Physiol. 517, 5-23.
  • CALI J. J., BALCUEVA E. A., RYBALKIN I., ROBISHAW J. D., 1992. Selective tissue distribution of G protein gamma subunits, including a new form of the gamma subunits identified by cDNA cloning. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24023-24027.
  • CAMPS M., CAROZZI A., SCHNABEL P., SCHEER A., PARKER P. J., GIERSCHIK P., 1992a. Isozyme-selective stimulation of phospholipase C-beta 2 by G protein beta gamma-subunits. Nature 360, 684-686.
  • CAMPS M., HOU C., SIDIROPOULOS D., STOCK J. B., JAKOBS K. H., GIERSCHIK P., 1992b. Stimulation of phospholipase C by guanine-nucleotide-binding protein beta gamma subunits. Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 821-831.
  • CHEN J.,DEVIVO M.,DINGUS J.,HARRY A., LI J., SUI J., CARTY D. J., BLANK J. L., EXTON J. H., STOFFEL R. H., INGLESE J., LEFKOWITZ R. J., LOGOTHETIS D. E., HILDEBRANDT J. D., IYENGAR R., 1995. A region of adenylyl cyclase 2 critical for regulation by G protein beta gamma subunits. Science 268, 1166-1169.
  • CHEN Y., WENG G., LI J., HARRY A., PIERONI J., DINGUS J., HILDEBRANDT J. D., GUARNIERI F.,WEINSTEIN H., IYENGAR R., 1997. A surface on the G protein β-subunit inolved in interactions with adenylyl cyclases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 2711-2714.
  • CHEN S.,DELL E. J., LIN F., SAI J.,HAMM H. E., 2004. RACK1 regulates specific functions of Gβγ J. Biol. Chem. 279, 17861-17863.
  • CHERFILS J., CHABRE M., 2003. Activation of G-protein Galpha subunits by receptors through Galpha- Gbeta and Galpha-Ggamma interactions. Trends Biochem. Sci. 28, 13-17.
  • CLAPHAM D. E., 1994. Direct G protein activation of ion channels? Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 17, 441-464.
  • CLAPHAM D., NEER E. J., 1988. Activation of atrial muscarinic-gated K+ channels by beta gamma-subunits of G proteins. Am. J. Physiol. 254, H192-197.
  • CLAPHAM D. E., NEER E. J., 1997. G protein βγ subunits. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 37, 167-203.
  • CLARK K. L., DIGNARD D., THOMAS D. Y., WHITEWAY M., 1993. Interactions among the subunits of the G protein involved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating. Mol. Cell Biol. 13, 1-8.
  • COLE G. .M., REED S. I., 1991. Pheromone-induced phosphorylation of a G protein beta subunit in S. cerevisiae is associated with an adaptive response to mating pheromone. Cell 64, 703-716.
  • CUELLO F., SCHULZE R. A., HEEMEYER F., MEYER H. E., LUTZ S., JAKOBS K. H., NIROOMAND F., WIELAND T., 2003. Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. Complex formation of NDPK B with Gbeta gamma dimers and phosphorylation of His-266 in Gbeta. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 7220-7226.
  • DAAKA Y., PITCHER J. A., RICHARDSON M., STOFFEL R. H., ROBISHAW J. D., LEFKOWITZ R. J., 1997. Receptor and G betagamma isoform-specific interactions with G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 2180-2185.
  • DASCAL N., 2001. Ion-channel regulation byGproteins. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 12, 391-398.
  • DIETRICH A., MEISTER M., BRAZIL D., CAMPS M., GIERSCHIK P., 1994. Stimulation of phospholipase C-beta 2 by recombinant guanine-nucleotide-binding protein beta gamma dimers produced in a baculovirus/ insect cell expression system. Requirement of gamma-subunit isoprenylation for stimulation of phospholipase C. Eur. J. Biochem. 219, 171-178.
  • DOERING C.J., KISILEVSKY A. E., FENG Z. P., ARNOT M. I., PELOQUIN J., HAMID J., BARR W., NIRDOSH A., SIMMS B., WINKFEIN R. J., ZAMPONI G. W., 2004. A single Gbeta subunit locus controls cross-talk between protein kinase C and G protein regulation of N-type calcium channels. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 29709-29717.
  • DOYLE D. A., MORAIS CABRAL J., PFUETZNER R. A., KUO A., GULBIS J. M., COHEN S. L., CHAIT B. T.,MACKINNON R., 1998. The structure of the potassium channel: mo- lecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity. Science 280, 69-77.
  • EICHMANN T., LORENZ K., HOFFMANN M., BROCKMANN J., KRASEL C., LOHSE M. J., QUITTERER U., 2003. The amino- terminal domain of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 is a regulatory Gbeta gammabinding site. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 8052-8057.
  • EVANKO D. S., THIYAGARAJAN M. M., SIDEROVSKI D. P., WEDEGAERTNER P. B., 2001. Gbeta gamma isoforms selectively rescue plasma membrane localization and palmitoylation of mutant Galphas and Galphaq. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 23945-23953.
  • FABCZAK H., SOBIERAJSKA K., FABCZAK S., 2003. Fosducyna i jej izoformy- regulatory aktywności białek G. Postępy Biologii Komórki 30, 745-761.
  • FIGLER R. A., GRABER S. G., LINDORFER M. A., YASUDA H., LINDEN J.,GARRISON J. C., 1996. Reconstitution of recombinant bovine A1 adenosine receptors in Sf9 cell membranes with recombinant G proteins of defined composition. Mol Pharmacol. 50, 1587-1595.
  • FORD C. E., SKIBA N. P., BAE H., DAAKA Y., REUVENY E., SHEKTER L. R., ROSAL R.,WENG G., YANG C. S., IYENGAR R.,MILLER R. J., JAN L. Y., LEFKOWITZ R. J., HAMM H.E., 1998. Molecular basis for interactions of G protein betagamma subunits with effectors. Science 280, 1271-1274.
  • FUKADA Y., TAKAO T., OHGURO H., YOSHIZAWA T., AKINO T., SHIMONISHI Y., 1990. Farnesylated gamma-subunit of photoreceptor G protein indispensable for GTP-binding. Nature 346, 658-660.
  • GARCIA D. E., LI B., GARCIA-FERREIRO R. E., HERNANDEZ- OCHOA E. O., YAN K., GAUTAM N., CATTERALL W. A., MACKIE K., HILLE B., 1998. G-protein beta-subunit specificity in the fast membrane-delimited inhibition of Ca2+ channels. J. Neurosci. 18, 9163-9170.
  • GARRITSEN A., SIMONDS W. F., 1994. Multiple domains of G protein beta confer subunit specificity in beta gamma interaction. J Biol Chem. 269, 24418-24423.
  • GAO B,. N., GILMAN A. G., 1991. Clonning and expression of awidely distributed (type IV) adenylyl cyclase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 10178-10182.
  • GAUDET R., BOHMA., SIGLER P. B., 1996. Crystal structure at 2,4Å resolution of the complex of transducin βγ and its regulators, phosducin subunits of G-proteins. Cell 87, 577-588.
  • GAUDET R., SAVAGE J. R.,MCLAUGCHLIN N.,WILLARDSON B. M., SIGLER P. B., 1999. A molecular mechanism for the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of heteromeric G proteins by phosducin. Mol. Cell 3, 649-660.
  • GAUTAM N., BAETSCHER M., AEBERSOLD R, SIMON M. I., 1989. A G protein gamma subunit shares homology with ras proteins. Science 44, 971-974.
  • GAUTAM N., 2003. A conformational switch regulates receptor-G protein interaction. Structure (Camb) 11, 359-360.
  • GAUTAM N, DOWNES G. B, YAN K, KISSELEV O., 1998. The G-protein betagamma complex. Cell. Signal., 10, 447-455.
  • GILMAN A. G., 1984. G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase. Cell 36, 577-579.
  • GILMAN A. G., 1987. G proteins: transducers of receptor- generated signals. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 56, 615-649.
  • GUATTEO E., FUSCO F. R., GIACOMINI P., BERNARDI G., MERCURI N. B., 2000. Theweavermutation reverses the function of dopamine and GABA in mouse dopaminergic neurons. J. Neurosci. 20, 6013-6020.
  • HAGA T., HAGA K., KAMEYAMA K., 1994. G protein-coupled receptor kinases. J. Neurochem. 63, 400-412.
  • HANCOCK J. F., PATERSON H.,MARSHALL C. J., 1990.Apolybasic domain or palmitoylation is required in addition to the CAAX motif to localize p21ras to the plasma membrane. Cell 63, 133-139.
  • HASSON M. S., BLINDER D., THORNER J., JENNESS D. D., 1994. Mutational activation of the STE5 gene product bypasses the requirement for G protein beta and gamma subunits in the yeast pheromone response pathway. Mol. Cell Biol. 14, 1054-1065.
  • HAWES B. E., TOUHARA K., KUROSE H., LEFKOWITZ R. J., Inglese J., 1994. Determination of the Gβγ-binding domain of phosducin, A regulatable modular of Gβ γ signaling. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 29825-29830.
  • HEITHIER H, FROHLICH M, DEES C., BAUMANN M, HARINg M., GIERSCHIK P., SCHILTZ E., VAZ W. L., HEKMAN M., HELMREICH E. J., 1992. Subunit interactions of GTPbinding proteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 1169-1181.
  • HERLITZE S., GARCIA D. E., MACKIE K., HILLE B., SCHEUER T., CATTERALL W. A., 1996. Modulation of Ca2+ channels by G-protein beta gamma subunits. Nature 380, 258-262.
  • HERRMANN R., HECK M., HENKLEIN P., HENKLEIN P., KLEUSS C.,HOFMANN K. P, ERNST O. P., 2004. Sequence of interactions in receptor-G protein coupling. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 24283-24290.
  • HIGASHIJIMA T., FERGUSON K. M, STERNWEIS P. C, SMIGEL M. D, GILMAN A. G., 1987. Effects of Mg2+ and the beta gamma-subunit complex on the interactions of guanine nucleotides with G proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 762-766.
  • HIGGINS J. B., CASEY P. J., 1994. In vitro processing of recombinant G protein gamma subunits. Requirements for assembly of an active beta gamma complex. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 9067-9073.
  • HILLE B., 1994. Modulation of ion-channel function by G-protein-coupled receptors. Trends Neurosci. 17, 531-536.
  • HIRSCHMAN J. E., JENNESS D. D., 1999. Dual lipid modification of the yeast gamma subunit Ste18p determines membrane localization of G betagamma. Mol. Cell Biol. 19, 7705-7711.
  • HOHENEGGER M., MITTERAUER T., VOSS T., NANOFF C., FREISSMUTH M., 1996. Thiophosphorylation of the G protein beta subunit in human platelet membranes: evidence against a direct phosphate transfer reaction to G alpha subunits. Mol. Pharmacol. 49, 73-80.
  • HOLLINGER S., HEPLER J. R., 2002. Cellular regulation of RGS proteins: modulators and integrators of G protein signaling. Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 527-559.
  • HUANG C. L., SLESINGER P. A., CASEY P. J., JAN Y. N., JAN L. Y., 1995. Evidence that direct binding of G beta gamma to the GIRK1 G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ channel is important for channel activation. Neuron 15, 1133-1143.
  • IKEDA S. R., 1996. Voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels by G-protein beta gamma subunits. Nature 380, 255-258.
  • INANOBE A., MORISHIGE K. I., TAKAHASHI N., ITO H., YAMADA M., TAKUMI T., NISHINA H., TAKAHASHI K., KANAHO Y., KATADA T., KURACHI Y., 1995. G beta gamma directly binds to the carboxyl terminus of the G protein-gated muscarinic K+ channel, GIRK1. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 212, 1022-1028.
  • INIGUEZ-LLUHI J. A., SIMON M. I., ROBISHAW J. D.,GILMAN A. G., 1992. G protein beta gamma subunits synthesized in Sf9 cells. Functional characterization and the significance of prenylation of gamma. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 23409-23417.
  • INGLESE J.,KOCH W. J., TOUHARA K., LEFKOWITZ R. J., 1995. G beta gammainteractions with PH domains and Ras-MAPK signaling pathways.Trends Biochem. Sci. 20, 151-156.
  • IVANOVA-NIKOLOVA T. T., BREITWIESER G. E., 1997. Effector contributions toGbeta gamma-mediated signaling as revealed by muscarinic potassium channel gating. J. Gen. Physiol. 109, 245-253.
  • JELSEMA C. L., AXELROD J., 1987. Stimulation of phospholipase A2 activity in bovine rod outer segments by the beta gammasubunits of transducin and its inhibition by the alpha subunit. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 3623-3627.
  • KALYANARAMAN S, KALYANARAMAN V, GAUTAmN., 1995. A brain-specific G protein gamma subunit. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 216, 126-132.
  • KAMMERMEIER P. J., XIAO B., TU J. C.,WORLEY P. F., IKEDA S. R., 2000a. Homer proteins regulate coupling of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors to N-type calcium and M-type potassium channels. J. Neurosci., 20, 7238-7245.
  • KAMMERMEIER P. J., RUIZ-VELASCO V., IKEDA S. R., 2000b. A voltage-independent calcium current inhibitory pathway activated by muscarinic agonists in rat sympathetic neurons requires both Galpha q/11 and Gbeta gamma. J. Neurosci. 20, 5623-5629.
  • KAWANO T., CHEN L., WATANABE S. Y., YAMAUCHI J., KAZIRO Y., NAKAJIMA Y., NAKAJIMA S., ITOH H., 1999. Importance of the G protein gamma subunit in activating G protein-coupled inward rectifier K+ channels. FEBS Lett. 463, 355-359.
  • KELLEHER D. J., JOHNSON G. L., 1988. Transducin inhibition of light-dependent rhodopsin phosphorylation: evidence for beta gamma subunit interaction with rhodopsin. Mol. Pharmacol. 34, 452-460.
  • KERCHNER K. R., CLAY R. L., MCCLEERY G., WATSON N., MCINTIRE W. E., MYUNG C. S., GARRISON J. C., 2004. Differential sensitivity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110{gamma} to isoforms of Gprotein {beta}{gamma} dimers. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 44554-44562.
  • KISSELEV O. G., ERMOLAEVA M. V., GAUTAM N., 1994. A farnesylated domain in the G protein gamma subunit is a specific determinant of receptor coupling. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 21399-21402.
  • KISSELEV O., ERMOLAEVA M., GAUTAM N., 1995a. Efficient interactionwith a receptor requires a specific type of prenyl group on the G protein gamma subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 25356-25358.
  • KISSELEV O., PRONIN A., ERMOLAEVA M., GAUTAM N., 1995b. Receptor-G protein coupling is established by a potential conformational switch in the beta gamma complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 9102-9106.
  • KISSELEV O. G., MEYER C. K., HECK M., ERNST O. P., HOFMANN K. P., 1999. Signal transfer from rhodopsin to the G-protein: evidence for a two-site sequential fit mechanism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 4898-4903.
  • KOCH W. J., INGLESE J., STONEW. C., LEFKOWITZ R. J., 1993. The binding site for the beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins on the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 8256-8260.
  • KOWLURU A., SEAVEY S. E., RHODES C. J., METZ S. A., 1996. A novel regulatory mechanism for trimeric GTPbinding proteins in the membrane and secretory granule fractions of human and rodent beta cells. Biochem. J. 313, 97-107.
  • LAMBRIGHT D. G., SONDEK J., BOHM A., SKIBA N. P., HAMM H. E., SIGLER P. B., 1996. The 2.0 A crystal structure of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature 379, 311-319.
  • LANGHANS-RAJASEKARAN S. A.,WAN Y., HUANG X.Y., 1995. Activation of Tsk and Btk tyrosine kinases by G protein beta gamma subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 8601-8605.
  • LEE C.,MURAKAMI T., SIMONDS W. F., 1995. Identification of a discrete region of the G protein gamma subunit conferring selectivity in beta gamma complex formation. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8779-8784.
  • LEE R. H., LIEBERMAN B. S., LOLLEY R. N., 1987. A novel complex from, bovine visual cells of 33000-dalton phosphoprotein with β- and γ-transducin: purification and subunit structure. Biochemistry 26, 3983-3990.
  • LEE R. H., BROWN B. M., LOLLEY R. N., HO Y. K., 1990. Protein kinase A phosphorylates retinal phosducin on serine 73 in situ. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 15860-15866.
  • LI Y, STERNWEIS P. M., CHARNECKI S., SMITH T. F.,GILMAN A. G., NEER E. J., KOZASA T., 1998. Sites for Galpha binding on theGprotein beta subunit overlapwith sites for regulation of phospholipase Cbeta and adenylyl cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 16265-16272.
  • LODOWSKI D. T., BARNHILL J. F., PITCHER J. A., CAPEL W. D., LEFKOWITZ R. J., TESMER J. J., 2003a. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a complex between G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and Gbeta1gamma2. Acta Crystallogr. D. Biol. Crystallogr. 59, 936-939.
  • LODOWSKI D. T., PITCHER J. A., CAPEL W. D., LEFKOWITZ R. J., TESMER J. J., 2003b. Keeping G proteins at bay: a complex between G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and Gbetagamma. Science 300, 1256-1262.
  • LOEW A., HO Y. K., BLUNDELL T., BAX B., 1998. Phosducin induces a structural change in transducin β Structure 6, 1007-1019.
  • LOGOTHETIS D., E., KURACHI Y., GALER J., NEER E. J., CLAPHAM D. E., 1987. The G βγ subunits of GTP-binding proteins activate the muscarinic K+ channel in heart. Nature 325, 321-326.
  • LU Q., ATKISSON M. S., JARVIS S. E., FENg Z. P., ZAMPONI G. W., DUNLAP K., 2001. Syntaxin 1A supports voltage- dependent inhibition of alpha1B Ca2+ channels by Gbetagamma in chick sensory neurons. J. Neurosci. 21, 2949-2957.
  • LÜSCHER C., JAN L. Y., STOFFEL M., MALENKA R. C., NICOLL R. A., 1997. G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRKs) mediate postsynaptic but not presynaptic transmitter actions in hippocampal neurons. Neuron 19, 687-695.
  • MAEDA T., WURGLER-MURPHY S. M., SAITO H., 1994. A two-component system that regulates an osmosensing MAP kinase cascade in yeast. Nature 369, 242-245.
  • MATTINGLY R. R, MACARA I. G., 1996. Phosphorylationdependent activation of the Ras-GRF/CDC25Mm exchange factor by muscarinic receptors and G-protein beta gamma subunits. Nature 382, 268-272.
  • MEISTER M., DIETRICH A., GIERSCHIK P., 1995. Identification of a three-amino-acid region in G protein gamma 1 as a determinant of selective beta gamma heterodimerization. Eur. J. Biochem. 34, 171-177.
  • MIRSHAHI T.,MITTAL V., ZHANG H., LINDER M. E., LOGOTHETIS D. E., 2002. Distinct sites on G protein beta gamma subunits regulate different effector functions. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 36345-36350.
  • MORISHITA R.,UEDA H.,KATO K., ASANO T., 1998. Identification of two forms of the gamma subunit of G protein, gamma10 and gamma11, in bovine lung and their tissue distribution in the rat. FEBS Lett. 428, 85-88.
  • MÜLLER S., STRAUB A., BAUER P. H., LOHSE M. H., 1996. Interactions of phosducin with defined G protein βγ-subunits. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11781-11788.
  • MURRAY D., MCLAUGHLIN S., HONIG B., 2001. The role of electrostatic interactions in the regulation of the membrane association of G protein βγ heterodimers. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 45153-45159.
  • MYUNG C. S., YASUDA H., LIU W. W., HARDEN T. K, GARRISON J, C., 1999. Role of isoprenoid lipids on the heterotrimeric G protein gamma subunit in determining effector activation. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 16595-16603.
  • NEER E. J., CLAPHAM D. E., 1988. Roles of G protein subunits in transmembrane signalling. Nature 333, 129-134.
  • NEER E. J, SCHMIDT C. J., NAMBUDRIPAD R., SMITH T. F., 1994.WDrepeat proteins: an ancient family of regulatory proteins. Nature 371, 297-300.
  • NEPTUNE E. R., BOURNE H. R., 1997. Receptors induce chemotaxis by releasing the betagamma subunit of Gi, not by activating Gq or Gs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 14489-14494.
  • ONG O. C., YAMANE H. K., PHAN K. B., FONG H. K., BOK D., LEE R. H., FUNG B. K., 1995. Molecular cloning and characterization of the G protein gamma subunit of cone photoreceptors. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8495-8500.
  • OHGURO H., NAKAGAWA T., KITAMURA K., AKINO T., 1992. Lack of association of Ca2+-calmodulin with the beta gamma-subunits of the photo-receptor G protein (transducin). Biochem. Int. 26, 51-57.
  • PAGE K. M., STEPHENS G. J., BERROW N. S., DOLPHIN A. C., 1997. The intracellular loop between domains I and II of the B-type calcium channel confers aspects of G-protein sensitivity to the E-type calcium channel. J. Neurosci. 17, 1330-1338.
  • PANCHENKO M. P., SAXENA K., LI Y., CHARNECKI S., STERNWEIS P. M., SMITH T. F., GILMAN A. G., KOZASA T., NEER E. J., 1998. Sites important for PLCbeta2 activation by the G protein betagamma subunit map to the sides of the beta propeller structure. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 28298-28304.
  • PATERSON A, BOYER J. L.,WATTS V. J.,MORRIS A. J., PRICE E. M., HARDEN T. K., 1995. Concentration of enzyme- dependent activation of PLC-beta 1 and PLC-beta 2 by G alpha 11 and beta gamma-subunits. Cell Signal. 7, 709-720.
  • PENG L., MIRSHAHI T., ZHANG H., HIRSCH J. P., LOGOTHETIS D. E., 2003. Critical determinants of the G protein gammasubunits in theGbetagamma stimulation of G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel activity. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 50203-50211.
  • PENG Y. W., ROBISHAW J. D., LEVINE M. A., YAU K. W., 1992. Retinal rods and cones have distinct G protein beta and gamma subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10882-10886.
  • PERACINO B., BORLEIS J., JIN T.,WESTPHAL M., SCHWARTZ J. M., WU L., BRACCO E., GERISCH G., DEVREOTES P., BOZZARO S., 1998. G protein beta subunit-nullmutants are impaired in phagocytosis and chemotaxis due to inappropriate regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. J. Cell Biol. 141, 1529-1537.
  • PESSIA M., BOND C. T., KAVANAUGH M. P., ADELMAN J. P., 1995. Contributions of the C-terminal domain to gating properties of inward rectifier potassium channels. Neuron 14, 1039-1045.
  • PHILLIPS W. J., CERIONE R. A., 1992a. Rhodopsin/ transducin interactions. I. Characterization of the binding of the transducin-beta gamma subunit complex to rhodopsin using fluorescence spectroscopy. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 17032-17039.
  • PHILLIPS W. J., WONG S. C., CERIONE R. A., 1992b. Rhodopsin/ transducin interactions. II. Influence of the transducin-beta gamma subunit complex on the coupling of the transducin-alpha subunit to rhodopsin. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 17040-17046.
  • PITCHER J. A., INGLESE J., HIGGINS J. B., ARRIZA J. L., CASEY P. J., KIM C., BENOVIC J. L., KWATRA M. M., CARON M. G., LEFKOWITZ R. J., 1992. Role of beta gamma subunits of G proteins in targeting the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase to membrane-bound receptors. Science 257, 1264-1267.
  • PRONIN A. N., GAUTAM N. 1992. Interaction between G-protein beta and gamma subunit types is selective. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 6220-6224.
  • PUMIGLIA K. M., LEVINE H., HASKE T., HABIB T., JOVE R., DECKER S. J., 1995. A direct interaction between G-protein beta gamma subunits and the Raf-1 protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 14251-14254.
  • QIN N., PLATANO D., OLCESE R., STEFANI E., BIRNBAUMER L., 1997. Direct interaction of gbetagamma with a C-terminal Gbetagamma-binding domain of the Ca2+ channel alpha1 subunit is responsible for channel inhibition by G protein-coupled receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8866-8871.
  • RHEE S. G., BAE Y. S., 1997. Regulation of phosphoinositide- specific phospholipase C isozymes. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 15045-15048.
  • RUIZ-VELASCO V., IKEDA S. R., 2000. Multiple G-protein betagamma combinations produce voltage-dependent inhibition of N-type calcium channels in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. J. Neurosci. 20, 2183-2191.
  • SATOH N., ABVE T., NAKAJIMA A., OHKOSHI M., KOIZUMI T., TAMADA M., SAKURAGI S., 1998. Analysis of uveitogenic sites in phosducin molecule Curr. Eye Res. 17, 677-680.
  • SCHNEIDER T., IGELMUND P.,HESCHELER J., 1997.Gprotein interaction with K+ and Ca2+ channels. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 18, 8-11.
  • SCHULZ R., 2001. Pharmacology of phosducin. Pharmacol. Res. 43, 1-10.
  • SMITH T. F., GAITATZES C., SAXENA K., Neer E. J., 1999. The WD repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions. Trends Biochem. Sci. 24, 181-185.
  • SMRCKA A. V., STERNWEIS P. C., 1993. Regulation of purified subtypes of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta by G protein alpha and beta gammasubunits. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 9667-9674.
  • SONDEK J., BOHM A., LAMBRIGHT D. G., HAMM H. E., SIGLER P. B., 1996. Crystal structure of a G-protein beta gamma dimer at 2.1A resolution. Nature 379, 369-374.
  • SPRING D. J., NEER E. J., 1994. A 14-amino acid region of the G protein gamma subunit is sufficient to confer selectivity of gamma binding to the beta subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 22882-22886.
  • STEPHENS L., SMRCKA A., COOKE F.T., JACKSON T. R., STERNWEIS P. C.,HAWKINS P. T., 1994. A novel phosphoinositide 3 kinase activity in myeloid-derived cells is activated by G protein beta gamma subunits. Cell 77, 83-93.
  • STERNWEIS P. C., 1994. The active role of beta gammain signal transduction. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 6, 198-203.
  • STRYER L., 1986. Cyclic GMP cascade of vision. Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 87-119.
  • STRYER L., BOURNE H. R., 1986. G proteins: a family of signal transducers. Ann. Rev. Cell Biol. 2, 391-419 SUNAHARA R. K., DESSAUER C. W., GILMAN A. G., 1996. Complexity and diversity of mammalian adenylyl cyclases. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 36, 461-480.
  • TAKIDA S., WEDEGAERTNER P. B., 2003. Heterotrimer formation, together with isoprenylation, is required for plasmamembrane targeting of Gbetagamma. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 17284-17290.
  • TANAKA H., KUO C.-H., MATSUDA T., FUKADA Y., HAYASHI F., DING Y., IRIE Y.,MIKI N., 1996. MEKA/phosducin attenuates hydrophobicity of transducin βγ subunits without binding to farnesyl moiety. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 223, 587-591.
  • TANAKA H., IWAM C., KUO C.-H., DING G. Y., DO E., IRIE Y., MIKI N., 1997. Analysis of the T βγ binding domain of MEKA/phosducin. Neurochem. Int. 31, 625- 634.
  • TANG W. J., GILMAN A. G., 1991. Type-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase by G protein beta gamma subunits. Science 254, 1500-1503.
  • TAYLOR J. M., JACOB-MOSIER G. G., LAWTON R. G., VANDORT M., NEUBIG R. R., 1996. Receptor and membrane interaction sites on Gbeta. A receptor- derived peptide binds to the carboxyl terminus. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 3336-3339.
  • TSUKADA S., SIMON M. I.,WITTE O. N., KATZ A., 1994. Binding of beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins to the PH domain of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 91, 11256-11260.
  • WALL M. A., COLEMAN D. E., LEE E., INIGUEZ-LLUHI J. A., Posner B. A., Gilman A. G., Sprang S. R., 1995. The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2. Cell 83, 1047-1058.
  • WATSON A. J., KATZ A., SIMON M. I., 1994. A fifth member of themammalian G-protein beta-subunit family. Expression in brain and activation of the beta 2 isotype of phospholipase C. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 22150-22156.
  • WATSON A. J., ARAGAY A. M., SLEPAK V. Z., SIMON M. I., 1996. A novel form of the G protein beta subunit Gbeta5 is specifically expressed in the vertebrate retina. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 4189-4192
  • WEDEGAERTNER P. B., WILSON P. T., BOURNE H. R., 1995. Lipid modifications of trimeric G proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 503-506.
  • WENG G., LI J., DINGUS J., HILDEBRANDT J. D., WEINSTEIN H., IYENGAR R., 1996. Gbeta subunit interacts with a peptide encoding region 956-982 of adenylyl cyclase 2. Cross-linking of the peptide to free Gbetagamma but not the heterotrimer. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 26445-26448.
  • WHITEWAY M., HOUGAN L., DIGNARD D., THOMAS D. Y., BELL L., SAARI G. C., GRANT F. J., O'HARA P., MACKAY V. L., 1989. The STE4 and STE18 genes of yeast encode potential beta and gamma subunits of the mating factor receptor-coupled G protein. Cell 56, 467-477.
  • WHITEWAY M. S.,WU C., LEEUW T., CLARK K., FOUREST-LIEUVIN A., THOMAS D. Y., LEBERER E., 1995. Association of the yeast pheromone response G protein beta gamma subunits with the MAP kinase scaffold Ste5p. Science 269, 1572-1575.
  • WICKMAN K., NEMEC J., GENDLER S. J., CLAPHAM D. E., 1998. Abnormal heart rate regulation in GIRK4 knockout mice. Neuron 2, 103-114.
  • WIELAND T., RONZANI M., Jakobs K. H., 1992. Stimulation and inhibition of human platelet adenylylcyclase by thiophosphorylated transducin beta gamma-subunits. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 20791- 20797.
  • WIELAND T., NURNBERG B., ULIBARRI I., KALDENBERG-STASCH S., SCHULTZ G., JAKOBS K. H., 1993. Guanine nucleotide-specific phosphate transfer by guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein beta-subu- nits. Characterization of the phosphorylated amino acid. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 18111-18118.
  • WU L., VALKEMA R., VAN HAASTERT P. J., DEVREOTES P. N., 1995. The G protein beta subunit is essential for multiple responses to chemoattractants in Dictyostelium. J. Cell Biol. 129, 1667-1675.
  • XU J., WU D., SLEPAK V. Z., SIMON M. I., 1995. The N terminus of phosducin is involved in binding of βγ-subunits of G-protein. Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 92, 2086-2090.
  • YAKUBOVICH D., PASTUSHENKO V., BITLER A., DESSAUER C. W., DASCAL N., 2000. Slow modal gating of single G protein-activated K+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J. Physiol. 524, 737-755.
  • YAMADA M., INANOBE A., KURACHI Y., 1998. G protein regulation of potassium ion channels. Pharmacol. Rev. 50, 723-757.
  • YAN K., GAUTAM N., 1996. A domain on the G protein beta subunit interacts with both adenylyl cyclase 2 and the muscarinic atrial potassium channel. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 17597-17600.
  • YASUDA H., LINDORFER M. A., WOODFORK K. A., FLETCHER J. E., GARRISON J. C., 1996. Role of the prenyl group on the G protein gamma subunit in coupling trimericGproteins to A1 adenosine receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 18588-18595.
  • ZAMPONI G.W., BOURINET E., NELSON D., NARGEOT J., SNUTCH T. P., 1997. Crosstalk between G proteins and protein kinase C mediated by the calcium channel alpha1 subunit. Nature 385, 442-446.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.