PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
Journal
2004 | 53 | 3-4 | 305-314
Article title

Układ prolaktynergiczny? Wytwarzanie i rola prolaktyny w mózgu

Content
Title variants
EN
The prolactinergic system? Production and role of prolactin in the brain
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
EN
Summary Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone that undergoes many posttranslational modifications which modulate its biological functions. Functions of prolactin can be also modulated by different forms of the prolactin receptor. Although the main source of the hormone is the anterior pituitary gland, it is produced in many tissues, e.g. in the immune system and brain. Both the hormone and its mRNA were detected in many regions of the rat brain but prolactin-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were observed only in the hypothalamus. Prolactin receptors were also detected in many brain regions but, surprisingly, were not as widely distributed as prolactin. Brain regions differ in proportions of prolactin receptor forms. These observations may explain why prolactin play many functions in the brain (e.g. neuromodulation, regulation of neurotransmitter release). As prolactin and prolactin receptor knockout mice do not develop any serious defects in the brain functioning, it is hypothesized that prolactin regulation is subtle and also may be partially compensated by growth hormone and placental lactogen.
Keywords
Journal
Year
Volume
53
Issue
3-4
Pages
305-314
Physical description
Dates
published
2004
References
  • ARBOGAST L. A., VOOGT J. L., 1991. Hyperprolactinemia increases and hypoprolactinemia decreases tyrosiene hydroxylase messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the arcuate nuclei, but not substantia nigra or zona incerta. Endocrinology 128, 997-1005.
  • BAKOWSKA J. C., MORRELL J. I., 2003. The distribution of mRNA for the short form of the prolactin receptor in the forebrain of the female rat. Mol. Brain Res. 116, 50-58.
  • BEN-JONATHAN N., MERSHON J. L., ALLEN D. L., STEINMETZ R. W., 1996. Extrapituitary prolactin: distribution, regulation, functions, and clinical aspects. Endocrine Rev. 17, 639-669.
  • BERWAER M.,MARTIAL J. A., DAVIS J. R. E., 1994. Characterization of an up-stream promoter directing extrapituitary expression of the human prolactin gene. Mol. Endocrinol. 8, 635-642.
  • BIENER E., MARTIN C., DANIEL N., FRANK S. J., CENTZONE V.F.,HERMANB.,DJIANE J.,GERTLER A., 2003. Ovine placental lactogen-induced heterodimerization of ovine growth hormone and prolactin receptors in living cells is demonstrated by FRET microscopy and leads to prolonged phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3. Endocrinology 144, 3532-3540.
  • BOLE-FEYSOT CH., GOFFIN V., EDERY M., BINART N., KELLY P. A., 1998. Prolactin (PRL) and its receptor: actions, signal transduction pathways and phenotypes observed in PRL receptor knockout mice. Endocrine Rev. 19, 225-268.
  • BREDOW S., KACSOH B., OBAL Jr F., FANG J., KRUEGER J. M., 1994. Increase of prolactinmRNA in the rat hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular injection of VIP or PACAP. Brain Res. 600, 301-308.
  • CLARK R. G., MORTENSEN D. L., CARLSON M. L. S., SPENCER S. A., SPENCER S. A., MULKERRIN M., MOORE J., CUNNINGHAM B. C., 1996. Recombinant human growth hormone (GH)-binding protein enhances the growth-promoting activity of human GH in the rat. Endocrinology 137, 4308-4315.
  • CLEVENGER C. V., KLINE J. B., 2001. Prolactin receptor signal transduction. Lupus 10, 706-718.
  • DE VITO W. J., 1988. Distribution of immunoreactive prolactin in the male and female rat brain: effects of hypophysectomy and intraventricular administration of colchicine. Neuroendocrinology 47, 284-289.
  • DEVITO W. J., STONE S., AVAKIAN C., 1991. Stimulation of hypothalamic prolactin release by veratridine and angiotensin II in the female rat: effect of ovariectomy and estradiol administration. Neuroendocrinology 54, 391-398.
  • DI CARLO R., BOLE-FEYSOT CH., GUALILLO O., MELI R., NAGANO M., KELLY P. A., 1996. Regulation of prolactin receptor mRNA expression in peripheral lymphocytes in rats in response to changes in serum concentrations of prolactin. Endocrinology 136, 4713-4716.
  • EMANUELE N. V., JURGENS J. K.,HALLORAN M. M., TENTLER J. J., LAWRENCE A. M., KELLEY M. R., 1992. The rat prolactin gene is expressed in brain tissue: detection of normal and alternatively spliced prolactin messenger RNA. Mol. Endocrinol. 6, 35-42.
  • FREEMAN M. E., KANYICSKA B., LERANT A., NAGY G., 2000. Prolactin: structure, function and regulation of secretion. Physiol. Rev. 80, 1523-1631.
  • GOFFIN V., SHIVERICK K. T., KELLY P. A., MARTIAL J. A., 1996. Sequence-function relationships within the expanding family of prolactin, growth hormone, placental lactogen and related proteins in mammals. Endocrine Rev. 17, 385-410.
  • GOFFIN V., BINART N., TOURAINE P.,KELLY P. A., 2002. Prolactin: the new biology of an old hormone. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 64, 47-67.
  • HARLAN R. E., SHIVERS B. D., FOX S. R., KAPLOVE K. A., SCHACHTER B. S., PFAFF D. W., 1989. Distribution and partial characterization of immunoreactive prolactin in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 49, 7-22.
  • HERMAN A., BIGNON C., DANIEL N., GROSCLAUDE J., GERTLER A.,DJIANE J., 2000. Functional heterodimerization of prolactin and growth hormone receptors by ovine placental lactogen. J Biol. Chem. 275, 6295-6301.
  • LASKOWSKA M., 2003. Występowanie prolaktyny w ośrodkowym układzie nerwowym u samic chomików dżungarskich (Phodopus sungorus) hodowanych w różnych fotoperiodach (16L:8D i 8L:16D). Praca magisterska wykonana w Zakładzie Fizjologii Zwierząt Kręgowych UW.
  • MATUSZEK B., NOWAKOWSKI A., 2003. Hiperprolaktynemia - częsty problem kliniczny. Medycyna Rodzinna 22
  • MEANEY A. M., O'KEANE V., 2002. Prolactin and schizophrenia: clinical consequences of hyperprolactinaemia. Life Sci. 71, 979-992.
  • MEJIA S., TORNER L., JEZIORSKI M. C., GONZALEZ C., MORALES M. A.,DE LA ESCALERA G. M., CLAPP C., 2003. Prolactin and 16K prolactin stimulate release of vasopressin by a direct effect on hypothalamo- neurohypophyseal system. Endocrine 20, 155-162.
  • MUCCIOLI G., GHÉ C., DI CARLO R., 1991. Distribution and characterization of prolactin binding sites in themale and female rat brain: effects of hypophysectomy and ovariectomy. Neuroendocrinology 53, 47-53.
  • MUSTAFA A.,NYBERG F., BOGDANOVIC N., ISLAM A., SULIMAN I., LINDGREN U., ROOS P., ADEM A., 1995. Prolactin binding sites in rat brain and liver: effects of long-term ovariectomy and ovarian steroids. Neurosci. Lett. 200, 179-182.
  • NAGANO M., KELLY P. A., 1994. Tissue distribution and regulation of rat prolactin receptor gene expression - quantitative analysis by polymerase chain reaction. J Biol. Chem. 269, 13337-13345.
  • NAGY E., BERCZI I., 1991. Hypophysectomized rats depend on residual prolactin for survival. Endocrinology 128, 2776-2784.
  • NISHIZUKA M., SHIVERS B. D., LERANTH C., PFAFF D., 1990. Ultrastructural characterization of prolactin-like immunoreactivity in rat medial basal hypothalamus. Neuroendocrinology 51, 249-254.
  • OUHTIT A.,MOREL G., KELLY P. A., 1993. Visualization of gene expression of short and long forms of prolactin receptor in the rat. Endocrinology 133, 135-144.
  • PAUT-PAGANO L., ROKY R., VALATX J.-L., KITAHAMA K., JOUVET M., 1993. Anatomical distribution of prolactin- like immunoreactivity in the rat brain. Neuroendocrinology 58, 682-695.
  • PI X. J., GRATTAN D. R., 1998. Differential expression of the two forms of prolactin receptor mRNA within microdissected hypothalamic nuclei of the rat. Mol. Brain Res. 59, 1-12.
  • PI X. J., GRATTAN D. R., 1999. Increased prolactin receptor immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of lactating rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 11, 693-705.
  • PI X., VOOGT J. L., 2002. Sex difference and estrous cycle: expression of prolactin receptor mRNA in rat brain. Mol. Brain Res. 103, 130-139.
  • PI X., ZHANG B., LI J., VOOGT J. L., 2003. Promoter usage and estrogen regulation of prolactin receptor gene in the brain of the female rat. Neuroendocrinology 77, 187-197.
  • SANTIAGO-MORENO J., GONZÁLEZ-BULNES A., GÓMEZ BRUNET A., DEL CAMPO A., PICAZO R., LÓPEZ SEBASTIÁN A., 2000. Nocturnal variation of prolactin secretion in the Mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries): seasonal changes. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 64, 211-219.
  • SCHRADIN C., REEDER D. M., MENDOZA S. P., ANZENBERGER G., 2003. Prolactin and paternal care: comparison of three species of monogamous new world monkeys (Callicebus cupreus, Callithrix jacchus, and Callimico goeldii). J Comp. Psychol. 117, 166-175.
  • SIAUD P., MANZONI O., BALMFREZOL M., BARBANEL G., ASSENMACHER I., ALONSO G., 1989. The organization of prolactin-like-immunoreactive neurons in the rat central nervous system. Cell Tiss. Res. 255, 107-115.
  • SINHA Y. N., 1995. Structural variants of prolactin: occurence and physiological significance. Endocrine Rev. 16, 354-369.
  • SOBRINHO L. G., SIMOES M., BARBOSA L., RAPOSO J. F., PRATAS S., FERNANDES P. L., SANTOS M. A., 2003. Cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone and neurovegetative responses to emotions elicited during an hyp noidal state. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28, 1-17.
  • TANAKA M., 2002. Brain-specific control of prolactin receptor gene expression correlated with induction of maternal behavior in the rat. J Reprod. Dev. 48, 103-110.
  • TORNER L., TOSCHI N., POHLINGER A., LANDGRAF R., NEUMANN I. D., 2001. Anxiolytic and anti-stress effects of brain prolactin: improved efficacy of antisense targeting of the prolactin receptor by molecular modeling. J Neurosci. 21, 3207-3214.
  • WILSON D. M., EMANUELE N. V., JURGENS J. K., KELLEY M. R., 1992. Prolactinmessage in brain and pituitary of adult male rats is identical: PCR cloning and sequencing of hypothalamic prolactin cDNA from intact and hypophysectomized adult male rats. Endocrinology 131, 2488-2490.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-ksv53p305kz
Identifiers
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.