Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2003 | 52 | 1 | 97-103
Article title

Schizofrenia u kobiet i mężczyzn

Title variants
Gender differences in schizophrenia
Languages of publication
Summary The paper presents evidence suggesting that most male schizophrenic patients display poorer premorbid functioning during the early stages of the illness. In men, schizophernia onset is earlier than in women. Male patients more often display structural micro-abnormalities of the brain and organic deficits. Schizophernia in male population is rather more chronic and has poorer prognosis. Female patients are more often burdened with genetic factors. They express more often productive and affective symptomatology but they are more sensitive to neuroleptics. Moreover, the prognosis in their illness is more advantageous.
Physical description
  • Katedra i Klinika Psychiatrii Akademii Medycznej, Kurpińskiego 19, 85-096 Bydgoszcz, Polska
  • Katedra i Klinika Psychiatrii Akademii Medycznej, Kurpińskiego 19, 85-096 Bydgoszcz, Polska
  • AFFLECK J. W., BURNS J., FORREST A. D., 1976. Long-term follow-up of schizophrenic patients in Edinburgh. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 53, 227-237.
  • ANDIA A. M., ZISOOK S., HEATON R. K., HESSELINK J., JERNIGON T., KUCK J., MORGANVILLE J., BRAFF D. L., 1995. Gender differences in schizophrenia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 183, 522-528.
  • ANDREASEN N., OLSEN S. A., 1982. Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 139, 297-302.
  • BLEULER E., 1911. Dementia praecox order die Gruppe der Schizophrenien. [W:] Handbuch der Psychiatrie, Leipzig Deutike.
  • BRYSON S. E., CLARK B. S., SMITH I. M., 1988. First report of a Canadian epidemiological study of autistic syndromes. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 29, 433-445.
  • CANTOR-GRAAE E.,MCNEIL T. F., SJOSTROM K., NORDSTROM L. G., ROSENLUND, 1994. Obstetric complications and their relationship to other etiological risk factors in schizophrenia: A case control study. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 182, 645-650.
  • CASTLE D., WESSELY S., MURRAY R. 1993. Sex and schizophrenia: effects of diagnostic stringency and associations with premorbid variables. Br. J. Psychiatry 162, 658-664.
  • CROW T. J., 1988. Sex chromosomes and psychosis. The case for a pseudoautosomal locus. Br. J. Psychiatry 53, 675-683.
  • CUFFEL B. J., CHASE P., 1994. Remission and relapse of substance use disorders in schizophrenia. Results from a one-year prospective study. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 6,342-348.
  • DEISTER A., MARNEROS A., 1992. Sex-dependent differences in endogenous psychoses. A comparison be- tween schizophrenic, schizoaffective and affective psychoses. Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiatr. 60, 407-419.
  • FLOR-HENRY P., 1990. Influence of gender in schizophrenia as related to other psychopathological syndromes. Schizophr. Bull. 16, 211-227.
  • FORREST A. D., HAY A. J., 1997. Sex differences and the schizophrenic experience. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 47, 137-149.
  • FRANZEK B., BECKMANN H., 1992. Sex differences and distinct subgroups in schizophrenia. A study of 54 chronic hospitalized schizophrenics. Psychopatology 25, 90-99.
  • GARDNER G. G., 1967. The relationship between childhood neurotic symptomatology and later schozophrenia in males and females. J. Nerv. Mental Dis. 144, 97-100.
  • GOLDSTEIN J. M., 1988. Gender differences in the course of schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatr. 145, 684-689.
  • GOLDSTEIN J. M., LINK B. G., 1988. Gender and the expression of schizophrenia. J. Psychiatr. Res. 22, 141-155.
  • GUNTHER-GENTA P., BAET P., HOHLFELD P., 1994. Obstetric complications and schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry 164, 165-170.
  • HAAS G. L., SWEENEY J. A., HIEN D.,WAKED W.,WEIDEN P., 1989. Sex differences in schizophrenia. Materiały prezentowane na Ann. Meet. Am. Psychiatric Associat., 1989, San Francisco.
  • HAAS G. L., GLICK I. D., CLARKIN J. F., SPENCER J. H., LEVIS A. B., 1990. Gender and schizophrenia outcome: A clinical trial of an inpatient family intervention. Schizophr. Bull. 16, 277-292.
  • HAFNER H., MAURER K., LOFFLER W., KIECHER-ROSSLER A., 1993. The influence of age and sex on the onset and early course of schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry 162, 80-86.
  • HAFNER H., RIECHER-ROSSLER A., AN DER HEIDEN W., MAURER K., FATKENHEUER B., LOFFLER W., 1993. Generating and testing a causal explanation of the gender difference in age at first onset of schizophrenia. Psychol. Med. 23, 925-940.
  • HALBREICH U., LEMUS C. Z., LIEBERMAN J. A., PARRY B., SCHIAVI R. C., 1990. Gonadal hormones, sex and behavior. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 26, 297-301.
  • HAMBRECHT M., MAURER K., HAFNER H., 1992. Gender differences in schizophrenia in three cultures. Results of the WHO collaborative study on psychiatric disability. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 27,117-121.
  • HOLLISTER J. M., LAING P.,MEDNICK S. A., 1996. Rhesus incompatibility as a risk factor for schizophrenia in male adults. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 53, 19-24.
  • HUTTUNEN M. O., MACHON R. A., MEDNICK S. A., 1994. Prenatal factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry 164, 15-19.
  • IACONO W. G., BEISER M., 1992. Are males more likely than females to develop schizophrenia? Am. J. Psychiatry 149, 1070-1074.
  • IACONO W. G., BEISER M., 1992. Where are thewomen in first - episode studies of schizophrenia? Schizophr. Bull. 18, 471-480.
  • KAPLAN I. H., SADOCK J. B., 1991. Synopsis of psychiatry - 6 th edition. Behavioral sciences. Clinical psychiatry. Wiliams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Hong Kong, London, Munich, Philadelphia, Sydney, Tokyo.
  • KITAMURA T., FUJIHARA S., YUZURIHA T., NAKAGAWA Y., 1993. Sex differences in schizophrenia: a demographic, symptomatic, life history and genetic study. Jpn. J. Psychiatry Neurol. 47, 819-824.
  • LEON J., DADVAND M., CANUSO C.,WHITE A. D., STANILLA J. K., SIMPSON G. M. 1995. Schizophrenia and smoking. An epidemiological survey in a state hospital. Am. J. Psychiatry 152, 453-455.
  • LEVINE R. R. J., 1981. Sex differences in schizophrenia: timing or subtypes? Psychol. Bull. 90, 432-444.
  • LEVINE R. R. J., GULLEY L. R., RISCH S. C., JENERT R., HOUPT J. L., 1990. Sexual dimorphism, brain morphology and schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 16, 195-205.
  • LIEBERMANN J., JODY D., GEISLER S., ALVIR J., LOEBEL A., SZYMANSKI S., WOERNER M., BORENSTEIN M., 1993. Time course and biologic correlates of treatment response in first - episode schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50, 369-376.
  • MAIER W., LICHTERMANN D., MINGES J., HEUN R., HALLMAYER J., BENKERT O., 1993. Schizoaffective disorder and affective disorders with mood-incongruent psychotic features: keep separate or combine? Evidence from a family study. Am. J. Psychiatry 149, 1666-1673.
  • MCGLASHANT. H., 1986. Predictors of shorter medium and longer term outcome in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 143, 50-55.
  • MENDELSON W. B., RICH C. L., 1993. Sedatives and suicide: the San Diego study. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 88, 337-341.
  • MORTENSEN P. B., JUEL R., 1993. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients. Br. J. Psychiatry 163, 183-189.
  • NEE L. E., CAINE E. D., POLINSKY R. J., 1980. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome - clinical and family study of 50 cases. Ann. Neurol. 7, 41-49.
  • NOSHIRVANI H. F., KASVIKIS Y., MARKS I. M., TSAKIRIS F., MONTEIRO W. O., 1991. Gender-divergent etiological factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brit. J. Psychiat. 158, 260-263.
  • ORWID M., PIETRUSZEWSKI K., 1993. Psychiatria dzieci i młodzieży. Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków.
  • OWEN M. J., LEVIS S. W., MURRAY R. M., 1988. Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: a computed tomographic study. Psychol. Med. 18, 331-339.
  • PERRY W.,MOORE D., BRAFF D., 1995. Gender differences on thought disturbance measures among schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 152, 298-301.
  • PŁYŃSKI S. (red.), 1993. Leksykon psychiatrii. PZWL, Warszawa.
  • PŁYŃSKI S., WIÓRKA J., 1997. Klasyfikacja zaburzeń psychicznych psychicznych zaburzeń zachowania w ICD - 10. Uniw. Wyd. Med. Versalius, Kraków- Warszawa,
  • RIECHER-ROSSLER A., HAFNER H., MAURER K., 1992. Schizophrenic symptomatology varies with serum estradiol levels during menstrual cycle. Schizophr. Res. 6, 114.
  • RUTTER M., 1968. Concept of autism. A review of research. J. Child Psychol. 9, 1-25.
  • SARTORIUS N., JABLENSKY A., KORTEN A., ERNBERG G., ANKER M., COOPER J. E., DAY R., 1986. Early manifestations and first-contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures. Psychol. Med. 16, 909-928.
  • SIMPSON G. M., YADALAM K. G., LEVINSON D. F., STEPHANOS M. J., SING E. E., COOPER T. B., 1990. Single dose pharmoacokinetics of fluphenazine after fluphenazine decanoate administation. J. Clin. Psychpharmacol. 10, 417-421.
  • SZYMANSKI S., LIEBERMAN J. A., ALVIR J. M., MAYERHOFF D., LOEBEL A.,GEISLER S., CHAKOS M., KOREEN A., JODY D., KANE J., 1995. Gender differences in onset of ilness, treatment response, course, and biologic indexes in first- episode schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 152, 698-703.
  • TEST M. A., BURKE S. S., WALLISCH L. S., 1990. Gender differences of young adults with schizophrenic disorders in community care. Schizophr. Bull. 16, 331-344.
  • WOLF S., CHICK J., 1980. Schizoid personality in childchood: A controlled follow - up study. Psychol. Med. 10, 85-100.
  • WORLDHEALTHORGANISATION, 1979. Schizophrenia. An international follow-up study. New York, Wiley & Sons.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.