Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2003 | 52 | 2-3 | 149-156
Article title

Co rozpoznaje układ immunologiczny? Na drodze do nowego paradygmatu

Title variants
What the immune system is recognizing. Towards the new paradigm
Languages of publication
Summary Individuals are protected against infections by two mechanisms. The first one non-specific, innate immunity which provides an early protection and is executed mainly by phagocytic cells, and the later one developing specific adoptive immunity which depends on B and T lymphocytes equipped in clonally distributed antigen-specific receptors. T cells recognize an antigen only when presented by the antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e. B lymphocytes, macrophages or dendritic cells (APC) (Signal I). APCs in turn produce an array of different mediators that stimulate T cells to perform their antigen-specific functions (Signal II). As shown by C. A. Janeway, APCs produce Signal II only upon recognition of highly conserved structures (patterns) on the surface of pathogens (PAMPs) by cell-membrane bound non-clonal wide-specific receptors (PRR) (e.g. toll-like receptors, TLR). Only then they decide whether the specific immune response will be induced at all, and also determine the type of effector mechanisms (humoral or cellular). In the "danger hypothesis" by P. Matzinger, more important than recognition of a foreign antigen is recognition of danger signals produced by cells exposed to different kinds of stress (e.g. heat shock proteins, HSP). These signals then activate APCs that, in turn, present antigen to lymphocytes. Antigens that do not cause cell damage (including also some bacterial antigens) are non-immunogenic. Moreover, the effector mechanisms triggered by an antigen are determined not by the antigen itself but by signals flowing from tissues in which antigen is recognized. These models are not mutually exclusive. The integrative hypothesis stresses the role of both microbial products and endogenous macromolecules in activation of the immune surveillance.
Physical description
  • Katedra Immunologii Collegium Medicum, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków, Polska
  • Katedra Immunologii Collegium Medicum, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków, Polska
  • Zakład Immunobiologii Ewolucyjnej Instytutu Zoologii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków, Polska
  • ABBAS A. K., LICHTMAN A. H., POBER J.S., 2000. Cellular and molecular immunology. 4th Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. PA,.
  • ADEREM A., ULEVITCH R. J., 2000. Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature 406, 782-787.
  • AGRAWAL A., EASTMAN Q.M., SCHATZ D. G., 1998. Transposition mediated by RAG1 and RAG2 and its implications for the evolution of the immune system. Nature 394, 744-751.
  • BENDELAC A.,MEDZITOV R., 2002. Adjuvants of immunity: harnessing innate immunity to promote adoptive immunity. J. Exp. Med. 195, F19-23.
  • BEUTLER B., 2000. The Toll-like receptors as the primary sensor of the innate immune system. Immunologist, 8, 123.
  • BRIGHTBILL H. D.,MODLIN R. L., 2000. Toll-like receptors: molecular mechanisms of the mammalian immune response. Immunology 101, 1-10.
  • FEARON D. T., LOCKSLEY R. M., 1996. The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science 272, 50-53.
  • HACKER G., REDECKE V., HACKER H., 2002. Activation of the immune system by bacterial CpG-DNA. Immunology 105, 245-251.
  • HOFFMANN J. A., KAFATOS F. C., JANEWAY C. A., EZEKOWITZ R. A., 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity. Science 284, 1313-1318.
  • JANEWAY C. A,1989. Aproaching the asymptote?. Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 54, 1-13.
  • JANEWAY C. A., 1998. The road less traveled by the role of innate immunity in the adaptive immune response. J. Immunol. 161, 539-544.
  • JANEWAY C. A.,1992. The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from non-infectious self. Immunol. Today 13, 11-16.
  • JOHNSON G. B., BRUNN G. J., TANG A. H., PLATT J. L., 2003. Evolutionary clues to the functions of the Toll-like family as surveillance receptors. Trends Immunol. 24, 19-24.
  • KARIN M., DELHASE M., 2000. The I Kappa B Kinase (IKK) and NF kappa B: Key elements of proinflammatory signaling. Semin. Immunol. 12, 85-98.
  • KUMARAGURU U., PACK C., ROUSE B. T., 2003. Toll-like receptor ligand links innate and adaptive immune responses by the production of heat-shock proteins. J. Leukocyte Biol. 73, 574-583.
  • MATZINGER P., 1994. Tolerance, danger, and the extended family. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 12, 991-1045.
  • MATZINGER P., 2001. The danger model in its historical context. Scand. J. Immunol. 54, 4-9.
  • MATZINGER P., 2002. The danger model: a renewed sense of self. Science 296, 301-305.
  • MEDZHITOV R., 2000. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Nat. Revs. Immunology 1, 135-145.
  • MEDZIHTOV R., JANEWAY C. A., 2000. Innate immunity. N. Engl. J. Med. 343, 338-344.
  • MEDZHITOV R, JANEWAY C. A., 2002. Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system. Science 296, 298-300.
  • MOLLER C., 1999. Receptors for innate pathogen defence in insects are normal activation receptors for specific immune responses in mammals. Scand. Immunol. 50, 341-347.
  • MUSHEGIAN A., MEDZHITOV, R., 2001. Evolutionary perspective on innate immune recognition. J. Cell Biol. 155, 705-710.
  • PŁYTYCZ B. (red), 1999. Immunologia porównawcza. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków.
  • PŁYTYCZ B., SELJELID R., 1996. Evolution of phagocyteand lymphocyte-mediated immunity. Central-Eur. J. Immunol. 21, 3-11.
  • PŁYTYCZ B., SELJELID R., 1997. Expansion of lymphocytes. Central-Eur. J. Immunol. 22, 321-326.
  • RISSO A., 2000. Leukocyte antimicrobial peptides: multifunctional effectormolecules of innate immunity. J. Leukoc. Biol. 68, 785-792.
  • SCHUSTER J. M., NELSON P. S., 2000. Toll receptors: an expanding role in our understanding of human disease. J. Leukoc. Biol. 67, 767-773.
  • SZCZEPANIK M., PŁYTYCZ B., 1998. Lymphocytes with gamma/delta receptors (γδT). Post. Biol. Kom. 25, 155-170.
  • UNDERHILL D. M., OZINSKY A., 2000. Toll-like receptors: key mediators of microbe detection. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 14, 103-110.
  • VANCE R. E., 2000. A Copernican revolution? Doubts about the danger theory. J. Immunol. 165, 1725-1728.
  • WALLIN R .P. A., LUNDQVIST A., MORE S. H., VON BONIN A., KIESSLING R., LJUNGGREN H-G., 2002. Heat-shock proteins as activators of the innate immune system. Trends Immunol. 23, 130-135.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.