Non-Collinear Magnetism in Itinerant-Electron Systems
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The Heisenberg model cannot uncritically be applied to itinerant-electron magnets, including those that show non-collinear order. Density functional theory is therefore generalized to apply to non-collinear itinerant-electron magnets. The appropriate Kohn-Sham equations are discussed and the total energy of spiral magnetic order is used to determine the magnon spectrum in the adiabatic approximation. The energy spectrum of transverse spin fluctuations can also be estimated with the total energy of spiral magnetic order and allows a determination of thermal properties of itinerant-electron magnets. Calculated results for Fe, Co, Ni, and FeCo are discussed and compared with experimental results.
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